Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases
A pooled analysis was done using data from 25 intervention nut consumption trials including walnuts, almonds, macadamias, pecans, peanuts, and pistachios conducted in seven countries among men and women with normolipidemia and hypercholesterolemia who were not taking lipid-lowering medications. For example, adding exercise, dietary changes, and moderate alcohol consumption to persons with an otherwise high-risk profile incrementally downgraded the overall risk of a first acute myocardial infarction. Fish consumption also reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. People should eat less high-calorie foods, especially foods high in saturated or trans fats and sugar, be physically active, prefer unsaturated fat and use less salt; enjoy fruits, vegetables and legumes; and select foods of plant and marine origin. Milk intake was not associated with risk of CHD, stroke, or total mortality. Adequate intakes of calcium mg per day or more and of vitamin D in populations with high osteoporosis rates helps to reduce fracture risk, so does sun exposure and physical activity to strengthen bones and muscles.
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Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition C. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document G. View All Most Downloaded Articles.
Thiamine deficiency and cardiovascular disorders E. Arafa Fish consumption is associated with a decreased risk of death among adults with diabetes: Diet quality and its association with type 2 diabetes and major cardiometabolic risk factors among adults in China Z.
View All Recent Articles. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: Consumption of ultra-processed food products and its effects on children's lipid profiles: A longitudinal study F. Taking potassium supplements has been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of CVD. However, the recommended level of fruit and vegetable consumption supplies an adequate intake of potassium and there is no evidence in favour of long term potassium supplementation to reduce the risk of CVD.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been widely associated with good health. Recent studies show a protective effect against coronary heart disease , stroke and high blood pressure.
Fish consumption also reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. The benefits are most evident in high risk groups. Other dietary factors may also contribute to reducing the risk. Nuts are high in unsaturated fatty acids and low in saturated fats, which contribute to lowering cholesterol levels. Several animal experiments have suggested that isoflavones, present in soy products , may provide protection against coronary heart disease.
Alcohol can have both a damaging and protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Despite convincing evidence that low to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease , consumption should be limited because of the risk of other cardiovascular diseases and health problems.
Coffee beans contain a substance called cafestol , which can raise the level of cholesterol in the blood and may increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The amount of cafestol in the cup depends on the brewing method: Products commonly used for cooking, such as hydrogenated fats or coconut and palm oil, contain saturated fatty acids.
Limiting the amount of saturated fatty acids consumed can be accomplished by restricting the intake of fat from dairy and meat sources, avoiding the use of hydrogenated oils in cooking, and ensuring a regular intake of fish once or twice per week.
Summary of strength of evidence on lifestyle factors. A daily intake of to g of fruits and vegetables such as berries, green leafy vegetables and legumes is recommended to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease , stroke and high blood pressure.
This daily consumption provides an adequate amount of potassium, which lowers blood pressure and is protective against stroke and cardiac arrythmias.
Other beneficial effects are due to the phytonutrients and fibre contained in fruits and vegetables. Indeed, fibre that is also found in wholegrain cereals helps protect against coronary heart disease and lowers blood pressure. Restricting salt sodium chloride intake to less than 5 g per day generally helps to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Restricting salt intake even more, to 1. However, precautions should be taken in special cases such as pregnant women who may be adversely affected by sodium reduction.
Fish consumption once or twice per week is protective against coronary heart disease and stroke. Vegetarians should ensure an adequate intake of the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid which is also found in plant sources such as canola and soybean oils, pumpkins, and walnuts.
Although low to moderate alcohol consumption may protect against coronary heart disease , other health risks associated with alcohol may outweigh these benefits. Thirty minutes of moderate physical activity every day may be sufficient to raise fitness of the heart and lungs which in turn may reduce the risk of CVD.
A longer duration and a higher activity level would provide an even greater benefit. However, people who are generally inactive should avoid sudden and high-intensity bursts of physical activity. This summary is free and ad-free, as is all of our content.