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The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: Anabolic steroids , also known more properly as anabolic—androgenic steroids AAS , [1] are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. Views Read Edit View history. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids.


Illegal trade in anabolic steroids. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. British Journal of Pharmacology. Houglum J, Harrelson GL, eds. Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers 2nd ed. Int J Sports Med. Mini Rev Med Chem. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases". Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment.

Royal College of Physicians. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 21 June A systematic review and meta-analysis". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports.

Clinics in Liver Disease. The named reference Llewellyn was invoked but never defined see the help page. Neidle 19 March Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry - E-Book. Do testosterone injections increase libido for elderly hypogonadal patients? Retrieved November 17, Retrieved December 5, Freter 30 July Perry's The Chemotherapy Source Book. J Womens Health Larchmt. Results from four national surveys".

Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Med Sci Sports Exerc. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Journal of Health Psychology. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. In Katzung, Bertram G. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure". Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: Handb Exp Pharmacol Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. J Sci Med Sport. Annals of Internal Medicine.

The Journal of Adolescent Health. The Journal of emergency medicine. Clin J Sport Med. University of California — San Francisco. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on 20 June Lay summary — ScienceDaily October 30, A Looming Public Health Concern? Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. What the psychiatrist needs to know". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Br J Sports Med. Archived from the original on And Other Performance-enhancing Drugs. Am J Public Health. Archived from the original on 10 July A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Retrieved 2 January Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. The New England Journal of Medicine. Penn Clinical Manual of Urology. Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health. Therefore, it is possible that a selective androgen response element sequence may play a role in differential T vs. Although both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone activate the same androgen receptor, differences in the sequence of androgen response elements are responsible for differential regulation of these hormones Int J Mol Sci.

Bilezikian; Dirk Vanderschueren 30 November The Effects of Gender on Skeletal Health. Kochakian 6 December Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. Regulation of the secretion of GnRH, FSH, and LH occurs partially by the negative feedback of testosterone and estradiol at the level of the hypothalamo-pituitary.

Estradiol has a much larger, inhibitory effect than testosterone, being fold more effective in suppressing LH secretion [57—61]. Androgens, estrogens and progestins exert a negative feedback effect on the secretion of GnRH and LH by their actions on the pituitary and the hypothalamus. Most of the negative feedback effect of androgens is caused by their estrogenic metabolites produced by aromatization. Rittmaster et al, ; Kumar et al, a; Hayes et al, Travis 23 September Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 4th Edition.

Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Larry; De Groot, Leslie J. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 8th ed. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem. Uber die kunstliche Herstellung des Testikelhormons. Helvetica Chimica Acta in German. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. In recent years several laboratories Kochakian, Albright, Wilkins have entertained the hope of finding a protein anabolic steroid without any, or with only minor, sexual effects.

These studies have received special impetus and encouragement from the observation of Kochakian that certain steroids have greater renotrophic anabolic? The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids. Handbook of Drug Interactions: A Clinical and Forensic Guide. US Department of Justice.

Archived from the original on 24 July Australian Institute of Criminology. Archived from the original on February 6, Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece 's settled, sheep-herding world. His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived.

Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs. Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behavior, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal.

Although portrayed as loyal, honest and moral, Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The tale of Little Red Riding Hood , first written in by Charles Perrault , is largely considered to have had more influence than any other source of literature in forging the wolf's negative reputation in the western world.

The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and borzois. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies. The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory.

It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows. The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.

Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back. It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves.

Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves. A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves. Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source.

Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.

Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves. Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members. The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.

Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves. The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey.

Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.

The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off. Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.

Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase, [24] though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.

The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women. Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia.

Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, [24] with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.

Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day. The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. In the half-century up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia.

Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs. This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell. Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies.

For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP [1]. Linnaeus , [3].

Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology.

Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves. Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.

This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves. This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.

Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A. Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp.

Foxes, Wolverhampton Wanderers F. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves". The Fear of Wolves: Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA.

A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns". Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walker's Mammals of the World. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLoS Genetics, 10 7.

Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves. PLOS One, 10 9. Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology. University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment. Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L.

S; Andriashek, D Mashkour "Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Retrieved February 20, It's a Lot Like Cats and Dogs". Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2. Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists. Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen.

Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White.

Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp. Cultural Perspectives , Psychology Press, pp. Archived from the original PDF on July 27, Smith, Yan Xie, Robert S. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Retrieved February 9, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 30, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved January 25, Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk.

Conservation Biology,16 3 , The Canadian Historical Review. Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry. University of Oklahoma Press. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. The complex interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs Canis familiaris in a conservation context". Wolf and dog competition in Italy. Wolf attacks on dogs in Scandinavia — Will wolves in Scandinavia go extinct if dog owners are allowed to kill a wolf attacking a dog?

Examensarbete , Institutionen för ekologi, Grimsö forskningsstation. What's New for Conserving Carnivores". What is wrong with Romanian livestock guarding dogs? Hunting the grisly and other sketches; an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle , New York, London, G.

Wolf and coyote trapping; an up-to-date wolf hunter's guide, giving the most successful methods of experienced "wolfers" for hunting and trapping these animals, also gives their habits in detail , Columbus, Ohio, A. African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Family Viverridae includes Civets. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M.

Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Western mountain coati N. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Spring Cleaning IS a Workout….

Top 10 Health Benefits of Collagen. Top 8 Health Benefits of Shilajit Mushrooms. Top 25 Fittest Mayors in America Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Health Fitness Revolution - September 16, 4.

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