Ratings & Reviews
But not just any old creatine will do the job; Animal Pump includes only the best. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate. By one estimate the number of mice and rats used in the United States alone in was 80 million. Animal Pump is this fuel. Animal Research in Medicine: Sugar-laden formulas of the past helped boost insulin levels, however they also added unnecessary carbohydrates.
With a change in pool type, there will be a change in the location of the pool filter. Many brands offer some exceptionally good pool pumps for both in-ground and aboveground pools, but you have to consider your budget and check important features like build quality, noise levels, basket size, etc.
Here are some good options to consider. Buy from Amazon Pros. With some very positive customer reviews, the SPX5 is considered quite reliable and efficient. You can get it in single or dual speed models along with a range of horsepower and voltage options. The presence of a heavy-duty motor makes it efficient and suitable for most in-ground pools as well as spas. It comes equipped with a cubic-inch basket that can handle a large number of leaves and debris.
The good thing is that it has a see-through strainer cover, which means you can easily see when the basket needs cleaning. It is also easy to remove the strainer cover, thanks to the use of swing-away hand knobs that require no clamps or any tools for removal.
Above all, this self-priming pool pump is extremely easy to install. The price may be the only concern though, as it is a bit higher than other models in this crowded category. It is a popular pump for your above ground pool and works efficiently with a motor capable of producing 0. The flow rate is impressive with the ability to handle This sand filter pump uses a 6-function control valve that ensures proper filtration and allows you to rinse, backwash, drain, re-circulate, and close the system at the same time.
A nice feature is the addition of a hour timer, which means you can automate the process and relax while the pump does its job. The strainer basket is reliable and is large enough to hold the leaves. There is also a ground fault circuit interrupter that ensures added safety. The availability of a couple of 1. Everything about this pump is good, but some people believe that it could have been quieter. The motor is efficient and comes with a double-sized seal for an extended performance.
It is nice to see that it comes in a corrosion-proof housing, which means you do not have to worry about using it in any weather or climate conditions. Interestingly, the motor comes with automatic thermal overload protection.
You will not have an issue with pool maintenance because it contains an extra-large basket along with a drain plug. It is a nice choice, but you may find the price to be a bit on the higher side. The Pentair is a reasonably good buy, especially because it is extremely easy to install. In fact, it is hard to find a variable speed pump that is easier-to-install than this model from Pentair. It can easily run on V, so no rewiring is ever needed. If your pool requires a 1.
It is worth mentioning that the Pentair is not the quietest pump available in the market. Still, it is not overly loud — expect more of a grunt than a whining.
It is a popular aboveground pool pump that is known for its industrial-size strainer basket. You can collect loads of debris and remove it with utmost ease. Throw in a heavy-duty motor in the picture, and you have a pump that performs exceptionally well. The motor comes with automatic thermal overload protection, so it is going to serve you for long. With a high-performance impeller installed, the PowerFlo Matrix works great to prevent clogging by debris and leaves.
Interestingly, it is possible to change the pump to filter setting as per your requirements. A 6ft cord is also included in the pack, which is nice. The only concern is that some people are not entirely happy about the build quality. It could have been better for sure. The Ecostar by Hayward is an energy-efficient pump, mainly because you can adjust its speed to suit your needs. This variable-speed pool pump uses a TEFC motor for better reliability and efficiency.
The addition of a touchpad control screen further adds to the ease of use. It comes equipped with an extra large basket to ensure you can collect a large amount of debris and leaves before you need to clean it. You will also like its impressive auto-priming capability that allows for a suction lift of up to 10ft.
The only issue is that you cannot make the company to honor the warranty if you install the pump yourself. If you are looking for a single-speed pump that is efficient and affordable, the SuperFlo by Pentair may be a good bet. The pump has a 56 square flange motor and has thick walled body parts. It means you are not going to experience any quality related issues. It is going to last for a long time. The presence of an oversized basket is a welcome addition too.
Toxicology testing became important in the 20th century. In the 19th century, laws regulating drugs were more relaxed. For example, in the U. However, in response to the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster of in which the eponymous drug killed more than users, the U.
Other countries enacted similar legislation. As the experimentation on animals increased, especially the practice of vivisection, so did criticism and controversy. In , the advocate of Galenic physiology Edmund O'Meara said that "the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state". There were also objections on an ethical basis, contending that the benefit to humans did not justify the harm to animals.
On the other side of the debate, those in favor of animal testing held that experiments on animals were necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard —who is sometimes known as the "prince of vivisectors"  and the father of physiology, and whose wife, Marie Françoise Martin, founded the first anti-vivisection society in France in  —famously wrote in that "the science of life is a superb and dazzlingly lighted hall which may be reached only by passing through a long and ghastly kitchen".
In , the physiologist and physician Dr. Cannon said "The antivivisectionists are the second of the two types Theodore Roosevelt described when he said, 'Common sense without conscience may lead to crime, but conscience without common sense may lead to folly, which is the handmaiden of crime. In , the first animal protection law was enacted in the British parliament, followed by the Cruelty to Animals Act , the first law specifically aimed at regulating animal testing.
I quite agree that it is justifiable for real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. It is a subject which makes me sick with horror, so I will not say another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night. The Physiological Society was formed in to give physiologists "mutual benefit and protection",  the Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Research was formed in and focused on policy-making, and the Research Defence Society now Understanding Animal Research was formed in "to make known the facts as to experiments on animals in this country; the immense importance to the welfare of mankind of such experiments and the great saving of human life and health directly attributable to them".
Antivivisectionists of the era generally believed the spread of mercy was the great cause of civilization, and vivisection was cruel. However, in the USA the antivivisectionists' efforts were defeated in every legislature, overwhelmed by the superior organization and influence of the medical community. Overall, this movement had little legislative success until the passing of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, in The regulations that apply to animals in laboratories vary across species.
In general, researchers are required to consult with the institution's veterinarian and its Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC , which every research facility is obliged to maintain. The CDC conducts infectious disease research on nonhuman primates, rabbits, mice, and other animals, while FDA requirements cover use of animals in pharmaceutical research.
According to the U. The OIG found that "as a result, animals are not always receiving basic humane care and treatment and, in some cases, pain and distress are not minimized during and after experimental procedures". According to the report, within a three-year period, nearly half of all American laboratories with regulated species were cited for AWA violations relating to improper IACUC oversight.
Larry Carbone, a laboratory animal veterinarian, writes that, in his experience, IACUCs take their work very seriously regardless of the species involved, though the use of non-human primates always raises what he calls a "red flag of special concern". Funded by the National Science Foundation, the three-year study found that animal-use committees that do not know the specifics of the university and personnel do not make the same approval decisions as those made by animal-use committees that do know the university and personnel.
Specifically, blinded committees more often ask for more information rather than approving studies. Scientists in India are protesting a recent guideline issued by the University Grants Commission to ban the use of live animals in universities and laboratories.
Accurate global figures for animal testing are difficult to obtain; it has been estimated that million vertebrates are experimented on around the world every year,  10—11 million of them in the EU. None of the figures include invertebrates such as shrimp and fruit flies.
By comparing with EU data, where all vertebrate species are counted, Speaking of Research estimated that around 12 million vertebrates were used in research in the US in Researchers found this increase is largely the result of an increased reliance on genetically modified mice in animal studies. In , researchers at Tufts University Center for Animals and Public Policy estimated that 14—21 million animals were used in American laboratories in , a reduction from a high of 50 million used in Congress Office of Technology Assessment reported that estimates of the animals used in the U.
The use of dogs and cats in research in the U. In GB, Home Office figures show that 3. A "procedure" refers here to an experiment that might last minutes, several months, or years. Most animals are used in only one procedure: The Three R's 3R's are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing. These were first described by W. The 3R's have a broader scope than simply encouraging alternatives to animal testing, but aim to improve animal welfare and scientific quality where the use of animals can not be avoided.
These 3R's are now implemented in many testing establishments worldwide and have been adopted by various pieces of legislation and regulations.
Despite the widespread acceptance of the 3R's, many countries—including Canada, Australia, Israel, South Korea, and Germany—have reported rising experimental use of animals in recent years with increased use of mice and, in some cases, fish while reporting declines in the use of cats, dogs, primates, rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters.
Along with other countries, China has also escalated its use of GM animals, resulting in an increase in overall animal use. Although many more invertebrates than vertebrates are used in animal testing, these studies are largely unregulated by law. The most frequently used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogaster , a fruit fly, and Caenorhabditis elegans , a nematode worm. In the case of C. However, the lack of an adaptive immune system and their simple organs prevent worms from being used in several aspects of medical research such as vaccine development.
Several invertebrate systems are considered acceptable alternatives to vertebrates in early-stage discovery screens. Drosophila melanogaster and the Galleria mellonella waxworm have been particularly important for analysis of virulence traits of mammalian pathogens. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate.
Over 20, rabbits were used for animal testing in the UK in The numbers of rabbits used for this purpose has fallen substantially over the past two decades. In , there were 3, procedures on rabbits for eye irritation in the UK,  and in this number was just Cats are most commonly used in neurological research.
In the UK, just procedures were carried out on cats in The number has been around for most of the last decade. Dogs are widely used in biomedical research, testing, and education—particularly beagles , because they are gentle and easy to handle, and to allow for comparisons with historical data from beagles a Reduction technique. They are used as models for human and veterinary diseases in cardiology, endocrinology , and bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.
Non-human primates NHPs are used in toxicology tests, studies of AIDS and hepatitis, studies of neurology , behavior and cognition, reproduction, genetics , and xenotransplantation.
They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. In the United States and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred.
Department of Agriculture , there were 71, monkeys in U. As of , there are approximately chimpanzees in U. The first transgenic primate was produced in , with the development of a method that could introduce new genes into a rhesus macaque. Animals used by laboratories are largely supplied by specialist dealers. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers.
Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly. Department of Agriculture USDA to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads.
Some Class B dealers have been accused of kidnapping pets and illegally trapping strays, a practice known as bunching. Four states in the U. Fourteen states explicitly prohibit the practice, while the remainder either allow it or have no relevant legislation. The latter requirement may also be exempted by special arrangement. Over half the primates imported between and were handled by Charles River Laboratories , or by Covance , which is the single largest importer of primates into the U.
The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering , and the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate.
Since , in the UK, every research procedure was retrospectively assessed for severity. The five categories are "sub-threshold", "mild", "moderate", "severe" and "non-recovery", the latter being procedures in which an animal is anesthetized and subsequently killed without recovering consciousness. The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes , who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness.
Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support,  some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined. It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals.
On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol". Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval.
Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments. Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide , by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia. Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously , or inhalant anesthetics may be used.
Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine. Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method.
Recommended methods include decapitation beheading for small rodents or rabbits. Cervical dislocation breaking the neck or spine may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks. Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits. It causes death by a concussion to the brain. Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used.
Some physical methods are only acceptable after the animal is unconscious. Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. Pithing inserting a tool into the base of the brain is usable on animals already unconscious. Slow or rapid freezing, or inducing air embolism are acceptable only with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness.
Basic or pure research investigates how organisms behave, develop, and function. Those opposed to animal testing object that pure research may have little or no practical purpose, but researchers argue that it forms the necessary basis for the development of applied research, rendering the distinction between pure and applied research—research that has a specific practical aim—unclear.
Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos. Applied research aims to solve specific and practical problems. These may involve the use of animal models of diseases or conditions, which are often discovered or generated by pure research programmes. In turn, such applied studies may be an early stage in the drug discovery process.
Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants. Documents released to the news media by the animal rights organization Uncaged Campaigns showed that, between and , wild baboons imported to the UK from Africa by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG, in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences , to be used in experiments that involved grafting pig tissues, suffered serious and sometimes fatal injuries.
A scandal occurred when it was revealed that the company had communicated with the British government in an attempt to avoid regulation.
Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences , on behalf of a wide variety of customers.
Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides , medications , food additives , packing materials, and air freshener , or their chemical ingredients. Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV , manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label.
The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously , intramuscularly , or subcutaneously ; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food.
Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. There are several different types of acute toxicity tests. This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in , replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure , which use fewer animals and cause less suffering. Irritancy can be measured using the Draize test , where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit.
For Draize eye testing, the test involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress". The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month acute , one to three months subchronic , and more than three months chronic to test general toxicity damage to organs , eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity , carcinogenicity , teratogenicity , and reproductive problems.
The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete. These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential". Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe.
Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U. Cosmetics testing on animals is banned in India, the European Union, Israel and Norway   while legislation in the U. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal , has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg , asking that the ban be quashed. Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax.
Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve:.
It is estimated that 20 million animals are used annually for educational purposes in the United States including, classroom observational exercises, dissections and live-animal surgeries. States and school districts mandating students be offered the choice to not dissect. The Sonoran Arthropod Institute hosts an annual Invertebrates in Education and Conservation Conference to discuss the use of invertebrates in education.
In November , the U. The operator is required to amputate a cockroach's antennae , use sandpaper to wear down the shell, insert a wire into the thorax , and then glue the electrodes and circuit board onto the insect's back. A mobile phone app can then be used to control it via Bluetooth. The makers of the "Roboroach" have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and state that the device is intended to encourage children to become interested in neuroscience.
Animals are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing. In the US military, goats are commonly used to train combat medics. Goats have become the main animal species used for this purpose after the Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training in the s.
Coast Guard announced that it would reduce the number of animals it uses in its training exercises by half after PETA released video showing Guard members cutting off the limbs of unconscious goats with tree trimmers and inflicting other injuries with a shotgun, pistol, ax and a scalpel. The moral and ethical questions raised by performing experiments on animals are subject to debate, and viewpoints have shifted significantly over the 20th century.
Still, a wide range of viewpoints exist. The view that animals have moral rights animal rights is a philosophical position proposed by Tom Regan , among others, who argues that animals are beings with beliefs and desires, and as such are the "subjects of a life" with moral value and therefore moral rights.
Likewise, a "moral dilemma" view suggests that avoiding potential benefit to humans is unacceptable on similar grounds, and holds the issue to be a dilemma in balancing such harm to humans to the harm done to animals in research. Another prominent position is that of philosopher Peter Singer , who argues that there are no grounds to include a being's species in considerations of whether their suffering is important in utilitarian moral considerations. Governments such as the Netherlands and New Zealand have responded to the public's concerns by outlawing invasive experiments on certain classes of non-human primates, particularly the great apes.
NIH announced in that it would dramatically reduce and eventually phase out experiments on chimpanzees. The British government has required that the cost to animals in an experiment be weighed against the gain in knowledge. Various specific cases of animal testing have drawn attention, including both instances of beneficial scientific research, and instances of alleged ethical violations by those performing the tests.
The fundamental properties of muscle physiology were determined with work done using frog muscles including the force generating mechanism of all muscle,  the length-tension relationship,  and the force-velocity curve  , and frogs are still the preferred model organism due to the long survival of muscles in vitro and the possibility of isolating intact single-fiber preparations not possible in other organisms.
Concerns have been raised over the mistreatment of primates undergoing testing. In the case of Britches , a macaque monkey at the University of California, Riverside , gained public attention.
He had his eyelids sewn shut and a sonar sensor on his head as part of an experiment to test sensory substitution devices for blind people. The laboratory was raided by Animal Liberation Front in , removing Britches and other animals.
Following release of the footage, the U. Threats of violence to animal researchers are not uncommon. In , a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists. The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to hours, and then euthanized.
Demonstrations were held in front of his home. A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack.
These attacks—as well as similar incidents that caused the Southern Poverty Law Center to declare in that the animal rights movement had "clearly taken a turn toward the more extreme"—prompted the US government to pass the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act and the UK government to add the offense of "Intimidation of persons connected with animal research organisation" to the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act Such legislation and the arrest and imprisonment of activists may have decreased the incidence of attacks.
Most scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. The "Three Rs"   are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries. Whilst replacement of animals, i. The scientists and engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute have created "organs-on-a-chip", including the "lung-on-a-chip" and "gut-on-a-chip". These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs.
The chips can be used instead of animals in in vitro disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing. Another non-animal research method is in silico or computer simulation and mathematical modeling which seeks to investigate and ultimately predict toxicity and drug affects in humans without using animals. This is done by investigating test compounds on a molecular level using recent advances in technological capabilities with the ultimate goal of creating treatments unique to each patient.
Microdosing is another alternative to the use of animals in experimentation. Microdosing is a process whereby volunteers are administered a small dose of a test compound allowing researchers to investigate its pharmacological affects without harming the volunteers. Microdosing can replace the use of animals in pre-clinical drug screening and can reduce the number of animals used in safety and toxicity testing. Additional alternative methods include positron emission tomography PET , which allows scanning of the human brain in vivo ,  and comparative epidemiological studies of disease risk factors among human populations.
Simulators and computer programs have also replaced the use of animals in dissection , teaching and training exercises. These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods.