Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment. AAS use occurs among adolescents, especially by those participating in competitive sports. The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: In a nutshell, don't beat yourself up. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment.
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There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug. Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism.
However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged.
Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension.
AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth.
Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.
AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.
This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys.
The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse.
Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.
As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported "roid rage" as a side effect of AAS.
A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.
The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.
A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin. The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users,  but little systematic evidence.
A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data. Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate.
The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.
From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes  or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.
Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible.
Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.
Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects.
A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements. The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent.
Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.
Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.
The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete. An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS.
Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e.
The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.
Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.
The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly.
The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.
Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself. A number of scientific studies have shown that creatine can improve strength,  energy,  muscle mass, and recovery times. In addition, recent studies have also shown that creatine improves brain function.
Creatine increases what is known as cell volumization by drawing water into muscle cells, making them larger. Creatine is sold in a variety of forms, including creatine monohydrate and creatine ethyl ester , amongst others.
Though all types of creatine are sold for the same purposes, there are subtle differences between them, such as price and necessary dosage. Creatine monohydrate is regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders. Creatine monohydrate is the most cost-effective dietary supplement in terms of muscle size and strength gains.
This can be accomplished by mixing powdered creatine with grape juice, lemonade, or many high glycemic index drinks. Some studies have suggested that consumption of creatine with protein and carbohydrates can have a greater effect than creatine combined with either protein or carbohydrates alone.
The inhibition of exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage by HMB is affected by the time that it is used relative to exercise. Meal replacement products MRPs are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals. MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids.
MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate , glutamine peptides, L-glutamine , calcium alpha-ketoglutarate , additional amino acids, lactoferrin , conjugated linoleic acid , and medium-chain triglycerides.
A sub-class of MRPs is colloquially known as "weight gainers", which are meal replacement products with a higher carbohydrate: Whereas a MRP will typically have a 0. A thermogenic is a broad term for any supplement that the manufacturer claims will cause thermogenesis , resulting in increased body temperature, increased metabolic rate, and consequently an increased rate in the burning of body fat and weight loss.
Until almost every product found in this supplement category comprised the " ECA stack ": However, on February 6, the Food and Drug Administration FDA banned the sale of ephedra and its alkaloid , ephedrine, for use in weight loss formulas. Several manufacturers replaced the ephedra component of the "ECA" stack with bitter orange or citrus aurantium containing synephrine instead of the ephedrine.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. From experimental data to clinical evidence in sarcopenia". HMB is widely used as an ergogenic supplement by young athletes. B; Serrano, J; Hoofnagle, J.
Br J Sports Med. Retrieved 1 December While federal law shut the door on regulation of dietary supplements, marketing hype may be leading the popular aids up courthouse steps".
Retrieved December 11, Food and Drug Administration. At Brigham Young, Draper has been researching the use of heat remedies to treat muscle soreness. In clinical tests, a portable air-activated heat wrap -- in this case a product called ThermaCare -- applied directly to the skin was beneficial to subjects.
While sore, don't expect to set personal records. Delayed onset muscle soreness usually affects only the body parts that were worked, so perhaps you can work other muscle groups while letting the fatigued ones recover. It's also a process of muscle conditioning. Torgan says delayed onset muscle soreness also has a "repeated bouts" effect.
This is why athletes often cross-train and vary their routines to continue to challenge and develop their muscle strength. It is important to distinguish the difference between moderate muscle soreness induced by exercise and muscle overuse or injury. Regardless of whether you're sore, there are still improvements occurring in your muscles during exercise.
However, moderate muscle pain might go a long way to keeping someone on the path to fitness. Muscle doesn't visibly [grow] overnight; nor does your time in the mile drop from eight to six minutes," says Draper.
Ease Those Aching Muscles So what can you do to alleviate the pain?