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Whole-grain maize contains 2 mg niacin per g, which is less than that in wheat or rice and about the same as the amount in oats. Where preference for white flour or highly milled rice leads to the consumption of a staple cereal rendered deficient by milling, widespread ill health could be, and has been, the result among those who do not include in their diet other foods that make up for this deficiency. An estimated , people each year are either permanently disabled or killed from surgical procedures gone horribly wrong. Never attempt to correct a calcium imbalance in isolation. There are innumerable varieties of yams genus Dioscorea , some of which are indigenous to Africa, Asia and the Americas. J Biol Chem
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Last change made August 8, The rest is then up to you. Take the personalized guide or see our top 10 list? PricePlow has received free samples of nearly all products mentioned on this page, including several competitors not listed. Using a team-based approach, we judge each product on merits of value, efficacy, labeling disclosure, quality, and taste, and our opinions are never swayed by free samples.
Do you have a very strict dietary regimen such as strict paleo, vegetarian, no artificial sweeteners, or severe digestion issues? Looking for the Best Protein Powder with no artificial flavoring or proprietary blends?!
The next question will help you find some lactose-free protein. You can always come back and look at the vegetarian options later. Welcome to the milk-based protein section! Most people will end up here. If this is your first time here, we are PricePlow — a non-biased price comparison site for supplements. Once you find your preferred protein, you can go to the product page, compare store prices, and sign up for price drop notifications.
However, for those who are a bit lactose- sensitive , you should find a product that has whey protein isolate or milk protein isolate as the first ingredient. Cellucor and Optimum Nutrition are all popular for doing this, so keep a lookout for those. The reason this is important is because answering yes will lead you down the pure isolate path, which is typically more expensive and part of our job is to find you value.
This helps us fit the protein into your diet without causing big of adjustments to the rest of your dietary plan. When we mention low-carb or low-fat, we mean less than or equal to 2 grams per serving. Welcome to the fun section!
This is where the absolute best-tasting proteins are, at least in our subjective opinions. The others on this page are great… but these are beyond great.
You will also get less protein per dollar. This is our final question. After this, we know enough to give you some good suggestions. If you want something fruity or something special and different like cinnamon bun or cake confetti , choose creative. It was worth it, this stuff is downright phenomenal. Nobody has ever come close to putting out a vanilla that so perfectly suits our palettes.
You can even make it into a sludge , with minimal water, which has nearly a pudding consistency. If you want an awesome chocolate flavor, Animal Whey Brownie Batter is unbelievable!! It took Universal Nutrition quite a while to come out with a protein powder for their extremely popular line of Animal products, but when they did, they knocked it out of the park with Animal Whey!! Ultimately, given the macros in the other top tasting protein, this is our go-to. We need to try more of their flavors.
There is simply no beating this taste. Consider it our dessert protein, and compare prices below. This stuff simply dominates. Note that this is primarily micellar casein slow-digesting and thicker , followed by whey protein isolate.
You can click the back button to see where other answers take you. Gourmet Berry is one of the more popular fruity flavors, and this is quite a clean protein. Dymatize often runs great deals, as you can tell below. The biggest difference, however, is that Dymatize actually does very well with their fruity flavors, including berry blast. The difference is that Dymatize comes through with the fruity flavors, whereas other companies typically stink the joint up.
But have you ever tried the strawberry flavor? Because this is one of the only strawberry proteins we find acceptable. These are truly phenomenal dessert proteins, and their high ratings at nearly every website back that up. The biggest issue is the carb and fat content. To get taste this good, you have to pay for it.
You can click the back button to try some different variations. In this section, we suggest our favorite low-fat products that may or may not have high amounts of lactose, and they may or may not be high-carb. This is the final question to get you to some answers. But for anything else, such as fruity flavors or something creative like cinnamon roll, go creative.
The Gold Standard in whey protein supplementation. But is it time for a flavor and thickness revamp? As the first company to mass-market a protein powder that contains higher-quality whey isolate as the first ingredient, they succeeded in bringing great protein to the masses. In doing this, they also helped lower the fat and carb content. Double-rich chocolate is the standard, and has always been the best seller. Nearly none of the other proteins mentioned on this page existed at that point, and definitely none that could mix the quality and taste.
However, over the past few years, the competition has caught up, and the flavoring from other companies has vastly improved. We just absolutely love the perfect amount of sweetness Dymatize puts into their vanilla flavors. Each scoop yields calories coming from 24g protein, 1. This newcomer on the block is turning heads everywhere. Cookies and cream is way too underrated, most notably because Snickerdoodle has been stealing the show.
That flavor wins recognition on the creative flavoring side of this flowchart. For every scoop, you get 24g of protein, 1. No other protein is doing it as right as PES Select in keeping the protein-fat-carb ratio solid, the ingredients clean, the flavor high, and the texture thick.
Another unique protein, this time from the legendary Ronnie Coleman. This is a pure whey isolate, and is on the higher end of the quality spectrum — 0 carbs, 0 fat. PricePlow relies on pricing from stores with which we have a business relationship.
We work hard to keep pricing current, but you may find a better offer on your own. Both of those flavors are rock stars, and it has only gotten better. If you literally want the taste of cake in your mouth without feeling bad about it, though, this is the one. If you need a more robust cinnamon cookie, Snickerdoodle is the flavor for you. The top two spots here were a toss-up.
It tastes like a very robust cinnamon cookie, and if everything else is boring you, this will definitely smack you in the face. This has allowed PES to avoid adding coffee creamers or other such nonsense while still keeping it thick and low-fat. And if you are , then this is the product for you. Just stop reading right now and try this stuff.
But since we are, this is our top flavor in this section. Welcome to the final part of the low-carb section. All powders below will have 2g of less carbohydrates. A few of the products in this area are whey protein isolates , since you need to filter out more milk sugars lactose to get the carbs down.
The breakdown looks very good too: Each 32g scoop provides calories , based upon. This is one of the awesome things that PES does — they always err in favor of a scientifically-sound formula. Dymatize is a major company with great value proteins. Some of their cheaper protein is loaded with filler carbohydrates, but Elite Whey is not. No foul aftertaste or drama included. Dymatize is owned by Post Foods, which is how they get such great deals on protein.
Different flavors have different macronutrient breakdowns, so double-check it if you want to grab a different flavor than vanilla. At 27g protein, 0 carbs, and 0 fat, this one is also in our creative low-fat section. You can and should! In our opinions, Ronnie is the man and has put his heart and soul into this company, and deserves the success, if only for bringing us a new flavor in the boring world of chocolates, vanillas, and cookies and creams.
Snickerdoodle is killing it, especially with such low-fat and low-carb numbers. It goes something like this: Note that some of the sweetener is in the form of stevia extract, which means that it relies a bit less on the sucralose — bonus points for some consumers. If you want a clean isolate that has some unique flavors rumor has it that orange dreamsicle is also amazing , then Dymatize has the lock on this section… for now, at least.
Do NOT miss out on deals like this — sign up for our hot deal alerts! Head over to our Supplement Deals page and scan for protein. But more importantly, click on the Get Deal Alerts button.
The PricePlow system will then email you anytime there is a new hot deal, so that you never miss an epic deal again like the one to the right. We are very selective of our deals!! What makes a hot deal protein? Significant price drops on major trusted brands like those mentioned on this site are also given some extra consideration. Welcome to the lactose intolerant section! In this section, we will only recommend products that are filtered so that you can handle them.
Note that if you already have a protein with higher fat or higher carbs, you can still use it up — you just may need to adjust your diet. With that said, there are a few products that still stand out, and some of them are still very clean others are not.
That is all solved now with Machine ISO, where Marc has taken his flavor systems to pure whey isolate form. Chocolate Sin is the chocolate isolate protein powder that chocolate-lovers have been waiting for! This flavor is so much darker, richer, and more powerful than other chocolate isolates. This is the chocolate that chocolate-loving isolate fans have been waiting for. Quattro is also third-party lab-tested to be free of amino spiking — just PURE quality protein here!
This is a high end isolate, and it comes with high-end taste on both the chocolate and vanilla ends. Definitely worth a try. No frills, no nonsense, no fillers….
A 31g scoop of this gives you 27g protein, 0 fat, and 0 carbs. This stuff is a absolutely perfect. This is the entry to this page, and it blasted into our Top 10 because its the flavor system to check out for both strawberry and and chocolate peanut butter lovers.
Quattro is third-party lab-tested and shown to be free of amino spiking — only top-notch protein here! What we love about Magnum Quattro is how thick it is, thanks to it being a four isolate blend. A great tasting and cost effective isolate, Platinum ISO-Whey is relatively new on the market and still gaining popularity and steam. Multiple users have claimed this is the best chocolate peanut butter protein ever developed! Gourmet vanilla comes in at 25g protein, 1g carb, and 0g fat. First off, only Quattro has been proven on this list to be third-party lab tested and free of amino acid fillers which means the protein number is truly legit.
Then, instead of a thinner isolate protein like the above products, Quattro uses a four isolate blend, which includes some thicker proteins that help make it taste better and last longer in your system — great for keeping the appetite down.
This also allows it to have less fillers. A dash of flaxseed and digestive enzymes are also added, which round out the mix, allowing for better intake. The macronutrients are where we really get excited though — this is a big 36g scoop, and chocolate will yield:.
The vanilla flavor is bar-none the best one to add to Greek yogurt. We use a fat-free Greek Yogurt, and it makes it taste like cake frosting — yet with basically no fat and very few carbs total! We then found the best products that were low carb and low fat 2g or less. These products are highly filtered for you, and they go hand in hand with low-carb, low-fat, low-calorie diets.
The filtration process removes those milk sugars the lactose , thus lowering the carbs and fats and giving you a higher percentage of protein by weight. You can see more pure isolates on our whey protein isolate page. You wanted creative proteins, and you get em from Ronnie. Each 31g scoop gets you 27g of protein, 0 fat, and 0 carbs. We find that Ace-K provides a great aftertaste to products. One most interesting inclusion is AstraGin, which is a trademarked compound that combines astragalus and ginseng.
Whether or not this works for whey protein remains to be seen, but it does assist with some of the amino acids. We then looked for low fat and low carbs, and finally found the most interesting and unique flavors for you to try.
To see more pure isolate products, see our whey protein isolate page on PricePlow. The good news is that we have you covered, and will be expanding this area over time. Also note that the paleo section listed next also has all-natural sweeteners, but those cost more due to needing grass-fed cows and such.
The vegetarian-based proteins that we most frequently recommend are based on rice protein and pea protein. Users in this area typically suffer from some type of disease, and need the easiest-to-digest protein possible that will not upset their stomach.
Sucralose, aspartame, and ace-k are out , but stevia and maybe fructose are in! Optimum Nutrition and Dymatize both work well for that. IsoNatural comes in chocolate, vanilla, and unflavored versions.
The unflavored version has literally nothing but whey protein isolate inside. Unable to add item to List. Sorry, there was a problem. There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Image Unavailable Image not available for Color: Supporting Elite Strength Athletes Since Add both to Cart Add both to List. These items are shipped from and sold by different sellers. Buy the selected items together This item: Ships from and sold by Amazon. Sponsored products related to this item What's this?
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See questions and answers. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention mixes well flavor drink scoop shake. A wide variety of fruits grow wild or are cultivated in tropical countries. The varieties available at any one time in a given area depend on the climate, the local tastes for fruit, the species cultivated and the season.
The main nutritive value of fruits is their content of vitamin C, which is often high. Some fruits also contain useful quantities of carotene.
Fruits except the avocado and a few others contain very little fat or protein and usually no starch. The carbohydrate is present in the form of various sugars. Fruits, like vegetables, contain much unabsorbable residue, mainly cellulose. The citrus fruits, such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, tangerines and limes, contain good quantities of vitamin C but little carotene.
In contrast, papayas, mangoes and Cape gooseberries Physalis peruviana contain both carotene and vitamin C. Papayas are a useful fruit, especially for those who cultivate a piece of land for a few years and then move on to new land. The papaya grows rapidly and may yield fruit after one or two years. The mango, on the other hand, grows slowly, but once established and it may establish itself needs no care and yields fruit for half a century.
Guavas, which are quite widely grown, contain five times as much vitamin C as most citrus fruits, as well as useful amounts of carotene. The avocado requires special mention because, unlike other fruits, it is rich in fat, a substance that is lacking in many tropical diets. It could with benefit be much more widely grown and eaten and fed to children.
Bananas are widely grown and eaten in tropical countries. They contain fair quantities of carotene and vitamin C, and they are rich in potassium. In East Africa plantains or bananas are commonly picked when green. Cooked and eaten as a mainly starchy food, they form the staple diet of many people. When bananas are ripe their starch is converted into other sugars.
A few fruit-trees would be a useful addition to all households, both urban and rural. Foods of animal origin are not essential for an adequate diet, but they are a useful complement to most diets, especially to those in developing countries that are based mainly on a carbohydrate-rich staple food such as a cereal or root crop.
Meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products all provide protein of high biological value, which is often a good complement to the limiting amino acids in plant foods consumed. These products are also rich in other nutrients. The iron provided by meat and fish is easily absorbed and enhances the absorption of iron from common staple foods such as rice, wheat or maize. However, foods of animal origin are usually relatively expensive and not within the purchasing power of poorer families.
Some wealthier people in both developing and industrialized countries consume large quantities of these foods; in consequence their intake of fat, especially saturated fat, may become excessive, increasing the risks of heart disease and obesity.
Americans consume about 80 kg of meat per person per year - almost 0. Meat is usually defined as the flesh mainly muscles and organs for example, liver and kidneys of animals mammals, reptiles and amphibians and birds particularly poultry.
Meat is sometimes subdivided into red meat from cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, etc. The animals providing meat may be domesticated or wild. The amount of meat consumed often depends mainly on cultural factors, on the price of meat in relation to incomes and on availability. Meat contains about 19 percent protein of excellent quality and iron that is well absorbed.
The amount of fat depends on the animal that the meat comes from and the cut. The energy value of meat rises with the fat content. The fat in meat is fairly high in its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Meat also provides useful amounts of riboflavin and niacin, a little thiamine and small quantities of iron, zinc and vitamins A and C.
Offal the internal organs , particularly liver, contains larger quantities. Offal has a relatively high amount of cholesterol. In general all animals - wild and domestic, large and small, birds, reptiles and mammals - provide meat of rather similar nutritional value. The main variable is the fat content.
Worldwide, a vast range and variety of animal products are eaten. Not all of them are popular everywhere, of course. Certain foods that are popular in some parts of the tropics and East Asia - such as locusts, grasshoppers, termites, flying ants, lake flies, caterpillars and other insects; baboons and monkeys; snakes and snails; rats and other rodents; and cats and dogs - are not found in European or North American diets. Similarly, the French liking for frogs' legs and horse meat and the English and Japanese taste for eels and raw oysters are not shared by many people living elsewhere.
Liked or disliked, however, all these foods are nutritious and contain protein of high biological value. Contaminated meat can lead to disease.
There is a need for improvements in conditions associated with production of meat both for local or family consumption and more importantly for commercial sale. For meat to be safe for human consumption, hygienic practices are essential at all levels, from the farm, through the slaughterhouse, to the retailer and into the kitchen. Most countries have regulations governing meat hygiene and authorities responsible for applying the regulations, but their effectiveness varies widely.
Fish and seafoods, like meat, are valuable in the diet because they provide a good quantity usually 17 percent or more of protein of high biological value, particularly sulphur-containing amino acids.
They are especially good as a complement to a cassava diet, which provides little protein. Fish varies in fat content but generally has less fat than meat. Fish also provides thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron and calcium. It contains a small quantity of vitamin C if eaten fresh. Small fish from the sea and lakes such as sardines and sprats dagaa in the United Republic of Tanzania, kapenta in Zambia are consumed whole, bones and all, thus providing much calcium and fluorine.
Dried dagaa, for instance, may contain 2 mg calcium per g. Fish offal is not usually consumed as part of any diet anywhere. However, fish liver and fish oils are very rich sources of the fat-soluble vitamins A and D. The amount varies, usually with the age and species of fish. Wherever water is available, fish provide a simple way of increasing protein consumption. The stocking of dams, the construction of fish ponds and better and more widespread fishing in rivers, lakes and the sea should all be given greater encouragement.
There is much regional variation in the variety of sea creatures people will eat. Encouraging children in coastal districts to collect sea urchins, sea slugs, limpets and the numerous other edible sea creatures, just as inland children collect locusts and lake flies, would considerably improve poor diets.
The introduction of swimming lessons in youth clubs and as a community development activity would encourage development of this pastime as well as fishing both for pleasure and for profit; fear of the water because of inability to swim is a deterrent to these activities, particularly among people who do not live beside water. The egg is one of the few foods containing no carbohydrate. Just as the foetus in the mother's uterus draws nutrients from the mother's blood in order to grow and develop into a human being, so the bird embryo draws all its nutrients from within the egg.
It is not surprising therefore that eggs are highly nutritious. Each egg contains a high proportion of excellent protein, is rich in fat and contains good quantities of calcium, iron, vitamins A and D and also thiamine and riboflavin.
Eggs are an essential part of the reproductive cycle of birds, so it is hardly surprising that their consumption, particularly by females, is forbidden by taboos in many societies. The irony is that eggs are often more easily available than most other high-quality foods. In developing countries it is not often that a family can afford to kill a cow or even a goat for food, but eggs are small and frequently laid.
They are also an easily prepared, easily digestible, protein-rich food suitable for children from the age of six months onward. Eggs do have a nutritional disadvantage: The cholesterol is present in the yolk. Production of eggs for family use should be encouraged wherever possible, even in the small garden or yard of an urban dwelling. Toddlers should be given priority in eating the eggs. Cattle blood, which is regularly consumed raw by many pastoral peoples, particularly in Africa, is highly nutritious.
It is rich in protein, has high biological value and contains many other nutrients. It is a particularly valuable source of iron. It is also a good source of nutrients in its processed form, usually a type of sausage. Animal milks and other dairy products are highly nutritious and can play an important part in human diets for both children and adults.
The composition of milk varies according to the animal from which it comes, providing the correct rate of growth and development for the young of that species. Thus, for human infants, human milk is better than cows' milk or any other milk product. Exclusive breastfeeding without other foods or liquids is the optimum means of feeding for the first six months of an infant's life see Chapter 7.
Continuing breastfeeding for many more months is of great value, while the baby is introduced to other foods. If breastmilk remains an important food for the child into the second or even third year of life, then animal milk is not necessary in the child's diet.
The composition of human and cows' milk is compared in Chapter 7 Table 7. Except for certain vitamins, the composition of human breastmilk is fairly constant, regardless of the diet of the mother. Maternal malnutrition will not cause a mother to produce milk of markedly lower nutrient content, but it will reduce the quantity she can produce. A few nutrients such as thiamine and vitamin A may be low if mothers are deficient in these nutrients. Caseinogen and lactalbumin, proteins of high biological value, are among the most important constituents of cows' milk.
The carbohydrate in cows' milk is the disaccharide lactose. Fat is present as very fine globules, which on standing tend to coalesce and rise to the surface.
The fat has a rather high content of saturated fatty acids. The calcium content of cows' milk mg per ml is four times that of human milk 30 mg per ml , because calves grow much more quickly and have a larger skeleton than human babies and therefore need more calcium. When a human infant is fed entirely on cows' milk the excess calcium does no good but causes no harm.
It does not produce a rate of growth beyond the optimum. The excess is excreted in the urine. Milk is also a very good source of riboflavin and vitamin A. It is a fair source of thiamine and vitamin C, but it is a poor source of iron and niacin. The mother usually provides her infant with a store of iron before birth.
However, this store is exhausted by about the sixth month of life, and if feeding of milk alone is prolonged, iron deficiency anaemia may develop. The amount of thiamine in human milk varies more than the other constituents and is largely dependent on the mother's intake of this vitamin. Infantile beriberi may occur in infants breastfed by thiamine-deficient mothers. The vitamin A content of human milk is to some extent dependent on the diet of the mother.
Despite the variation in the composition of milk from different animals, all milk is rich in protein and other nutrients and constitutes a good food for humans, especially children. Although most animal milk for human consumption comes from cows, in certain societies the milk of buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels is important. Some peoples have taboos against milk. In many parts of the world, milk is more often consumed sour or curdled than fresh; in fact, some people dislike fresh milk.
There is no need to alter this habit, for curdled milk keeps longer, retains its nutritive value and may be more digestible and more hygienic than fresh milk. However, it is much safer to drink milk that has been boiled and kept in a clean container, because milk can provide a vehicle for the transmission of some disease-causing organisms.
Pasteurization of milk carried out efficiently in a large, well-run dairy greatly reduces the risk of pathological organisms spreading, provided that the milk is placed in clean containers destined for direct delivery to the consumer.
However, in many small towns where pasteurization is not well controlled, the milk may be insufficiently heated, the containers may not be well cleaned, and the milk may go from the plant into large churns for bottling elsewhere in insanitary surroundings.
The consumer should not be overconfident in all milk labelled "pasteurized", since it is not necessarily free from pathological organisms. In many countries where cows' milk is a normal item of the diet, it is customary to wean infants from breastmilk on to a diet in which cows' milk plays an important part.
This is a valuable practice, for it helps ensure that the child will receive a balanced diet that provides all the requirements for growth, development and health. Some people limit their milk consumption because of lactose intolerance, a condition resulting from low levels of the digestive enzyme lactase, which is responsible for digesting lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk.
It is probably normal for human adults to have low levels of intestinal lactase, and the condition is very common in non-white peoples. Research shows that most lactose-intolerant persons can in fact consume milk in moderate quantities perhaps three to five cups of milk per day without developing symptoms.
Skimmed milk is milk from which the fat has been removed, usually for making butter. In its dried form DSM , it is a familiar product in many countries. It contains nearly all the protein of milk, as well as the carbohydrate, calcium and B vitamins. It is an excellent food, especially for those on predominantly carbohydrate diets and those who have extra needs for protein.
In some places DSM is supplied to those with special needs through clinics and health centres. It is extensively used in hospitals and dispensaries as the basis for the treatment of protein-energy malnutrition PEM.
It is also issued at child-welfare clinics to prevent this most devastating form of malnutrition. Skimmed milk is an excellent food to add to any diet, but it is particularly useful in the diets of children and pregnant and lactating women.
However, it is not a suitable substitute for whole milk for infants. This product, as the name implies, is whole milk that has been dried.
Unlike DSM, it contains fat. It is suitable for infants when no breastmilk is available. These are milks that have had much of their water removed but that are still liquid. Condensed milk is sweetened by the addition of sugar, whereas evaporated milk does not contain added sugar. Many brands of condensed milk have vitamins added. These brands should be preferred to those that do not have vitamins added, especially if they are used in the diets of young children. They are not suitable as breastmilk substitutes for infants.
Many different organisms are used in the process of making yoghurt and fermented milks. These products are easy to prepare, are highly nutritious, have enhanced keeping quality and are a little less likely than fresh milk to harbour pathogenic organisms. Their use should be encouraged. Casein is the protein from milk. It tends to be rather expensive. It is commonly mixed as part of a formula or mixture for treatment of children with PEM see Chapter The making of cheese no doubt arose from the desire of farm people to preserve some of the excess milk of the summer.
Numerous processes are used, but essentially cheese is made by letting milk clot and subsequently removing some of the water. Salt and other flavourings may be added. Cheese-making is an excellent way of using any excess milk produced during the seasons when milk yields are high.
Butter and ghee are both milk products, but being mainly fat they are discussed in Chapter 30, "Oils and fats". In general adults should consume at least 15 percent of their energy intake from dietary fats and oils, and women of childbearing age should consume at least 20 percent. Active individuals who are not obese may consume up to 35 percent and sedentary individuals up to 30 percent of energy from fat as long as saturated fatty acids do not exceed 10 percent of the energy intake and cholesterol intake is limited to mg per day.
Annex 1 gives levels of fat intake for low-income countries calculated according to the recommended range 15 to 35 percent of dietary energy from fat. Infants fed human milk or formula usually receive 50 to 60 percent of their total energy from fat.
Infants should receive breastmilk, but if they do not, the fatty acid composition of infant formula should correspond to the range found in the breastmilk from omnivorous women. During complementary feeding up to two years of age or beyond, the diet should provide 30 to 40 percent of energy from fat.
To achieve the recommended levels of fat intake, poor people, particularly in developing countries, would need to increase their intake of fat and oils. In contrast, most people living in rich industrialized countries would need to reduce their consumption of fat and oils, which now often provide 40 percent or more of the energy they consume.
The fat consumed in human diets is often divided into two categories: Persons in developing countries who may get only 15 percent of their energy from fat will often obtain two-thirds as invisible fat and one-third as visible fat or fat added to food. In contrast, in North America and Europe, where mean intakes of fats are high, some 70 percent may be visible fat and 30 percent invisible fat. A diet very low in fat tends to be unpalatable and dull.
It is difficult to cook a really good meal without any fat or oil, although the desired amount is largely a matter of habit and taste. However, like animal proteins, fats are relatively expensive, so the diet of poorer people is often short of fat. Fat is important because weight for weight it provides more than twice as much energy as carbohydrate or protein, thus reducing the bulk of the diet.
Fats and oils may be good sources of fat-soluble vitamins, and they assist with the absorption of other nutrients. Recent work has established that certain unsaturated fatty acids are essential for pre- and postnatal development of the brain in children and are also essential for health in adults. Fats contain a variety of fatty acids. Fats derived from land animals e.
Fats derived from vegetable products and marine animals e. Coconut oil is an exception in that it contains mainly saturated fatty acids. A high intake of saturated fatty acids may contribute to raised serum cholesterol levels, which in turn may increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
Butter consists mainly of the fat from milk. It usually contains about 82 percent fat, with a trace of protein and carbohydrate; the rest is water. Butter is rich in vitamin A and has a small amount of vitamin D, but the content varies with the time of year and the diet of the cow from which it was derived.
Usually about mg of retinol and 50 IU of vitamin D are present in g of butter. Butter and margarine are increasingly used in diets in developing countries as the use of bread increases. Developed as a substitute for butter, margarine is made from various vegetable oils that are partially hydrogenated to give a product with a consistency similar to that of butter.
In most countries vitamins A and D are added so that the final product is nutritionally very similar to butter. If these vitamins have been added, they will usually be mentioned on the margarine container. Ghee is made by heating butter to precipitate the protein, which is then removed.
Ghee contains 99 percent fat, no protein or carbohydrate, about 2 IU of vitamin A per g and some vitamin D. It has good keeping qualities and is much used in tropical countries in place of butter, because butter soon goes rancid if kept unrefrigerated in warm temperatures. Lard is collected during the heating of pork. Like other similar animal fats e. Vegetable oils are the cooking fats most commonly used in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and there are many different kinds.
Except for red palm oil, they have the disadvantage of containing no vitamins except vitamin E. They are mainly low in saturated fatty acids. Commonly used vegetable oils are soybean, olive, maize, groundnut, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and coconut oils.
In their pure form, they are percent fat and contain no water or other nutrients. Red palm oil is widely produced in West Africa and in certain Asian countries e. In West Africa it is important in human diets, but elsewhere it is exported for soap production and not much consumed locally. It is therefore a very valuable food wherever a shortage of vitamin A occurs in the diet. Vitamin A deficiency will not be a problem in areas where all members of the family consume even small quantities of red palm oil.
Encouragement should be given to its wider cultivation and consumption. It is essential that the human body receive water, yet the human taste prefers that much of this water be obtained in the form of beverages.
These include beer, wine, spirits, fruit juices, tea, coffee, cocoa, synthetic sweetened soft drinks and aerated waters. Some of these beverages contain small amounts of drugs such as caffeine tea, coffee and some colas or alcohol in varying amounts beer, wine and spirits , and some are sources of minerals and vitamins.
In most countries there are traditional beverages of great variety. In Africa many of these are made from cereal grains that have been soaked and sprouted. These beverages may or may not be alcoholic, and some are useful sources of B vitamins. In other parts of the world local beverages may be made from honey or coconut or any number of local products.
In the industrialized countries aerated soft drinks, often called "sodas", many with a cola base, are highly popular and consumed in huge quantities. In many parts of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Near East, manufactured soft drinks and sodas are replacing traditional beverages.
Most of these sodas provide no significant nutrients other than carbohydrates. In contrast, fruit juices, either purchased or home-made from fresh fruit, usually contain useful amounts of vitamin C, and some provide carotene. They are good beverages, especially for children. It is not uncommon to find mothers giving their babies and children orange squash or fruit-flavoured sodas because they were told at the clinic to give them fruit juice.
These manufactured beverages are no substitute for fruit juice and will do the child no good; they are simply a waste of money. Certain vitamin-rich proprietary beverages have been designed for infants and children. Their vitamin content is nearly always clearly stated on the label. They need to be used with caution, however. They are not necessary if the child is getting fresh fruit and vegetables, and they are often a very expensive way of providing vitamin C to a child.
The advertising promoting them is pervasive, however, and can persuade mothers that they are useful. Another major group of beverages comprises those usually consumed hot. Tea, which was probably first drunk in China, is now the favourite beverage of many people in Africa, the Near East and Europe. The two main types are Arabian, Coffea arabica, and robusta, Coffea canephora.
In all regions of the world tea, coffee and to a lesser extent cocoa are popular beverages. All three provide small amounts of caffeine, which is a mild stimulant. None have any great nutritional significance. Tannin and polyphenols in tea may reduce iron absorption. For thousands of years people from all continents have produced beverages that contain ethyl alcohol. Usually certain yeasts are used to ferment a local carbohydrate-rich food for example, cereals or root crops , but fruits, palm sap, honey and other raw ingredients are also used.
In the industrialized countries beer often made from barley , wine made from grapes and various spirits drinks with a relatively high alcohol content made by distillation are very widely consumed, and this practice has spread to many countries of the South. Alcohol produces a good feeling for many who drink it, but it also impairs the senses, and it can be addictive. It can be claimed that alcohol consumed in moderation provides a sense of well-being and may improve social interaction; but alcohol in excess is a serious cause of automobile and other accidents, and alcoholism is a highly prevalent and very damaging disease in all continents of the world.
Animals and primitive men and women obtained most of their fluids in the form of water; then for thousands of years other beverages became the favourite drink for humans; and now there is almost a craze to drink "natural" or "spring" waters, either aerated or still.
Many consumers believe that these waters, coming from springs, lakes, rivers or wells, have near-magical qualities and great nutritive value. This idea is false. Bottled water may contain small amounts of minerals such as calcium, magnesium and fluoride, but so does tap-water from many municipal water supplies. A study comparing popular brands of bottled water showed that they were in no way superior to New York tap-water.
They have only the advantage of being safe in areas where tap-water may be contaminated. However, for low-income people bottled waters are very expensive, and boiling local water renders it safe at a much lower cost. Salt consists mainly of sodium chloride. It is the only mineral salt that humans customarily consume in a chemically pure form. The body has a definite need for sodium and chlorine.
The amount of sodium chloride in the body is regulated by the kidneys. In hot countries a person doing heavy work may lose 15 g of sodium chloride in body sweat in one day. Urinary excretion ranges from 1 to 30 g or more per day. Despite this loss, salt is not essential in the human diet unless sweating is profuse, because sufficient sodium and chlorine can be obtained from food alone.
Nevertheless, nearly all people use salt, obtaining it by digging, making or buying it, however small the income. Certainly a salt-free diet is unpalatable. Adults usually consume about 10 g of salt a day, but there are enormous variations.
A high intake of salt may contribute to the development of hypertension or high blood pressure in some individuals. Other spices and flavourings are of less physiological or nutritive importance. In all countries, in all ages, people have added such items to their food to improve and vary its taste.
In Africa, Asia and Latin America a variety of wild leaves are used, partly for flavour, partly as vegetables per se; hot chilies, both red and green, are frequently used; and pepper and curry powder are popular additions to the sauce or stew accompanying the staple food. Few of these flavourings have much nutritional importance, but all serve to make the food more pleasing to the taste.
They therefore both increase the appetite and assist digestion by stimulating the secretion of saliva and intestinal juices.
With the march of so-called civilization, many of the traditional and natural condiments and herbs are being replaced by proprietary sauces and flavourings. Some of these are artificial chemical agents for example, monosodium glutamate and some are based on traditional spices garlic, cloves, ginger, etc. Humans are unique in the animal kingdom in that they harvest, store and process food that they have grown. Almost all animals harvest food, and many animals store it for later consumption, but they do not grow it or process it.
In their evolution from the apes humans learned to grow food for their own sustenance and then to develop many processes to preserve the food or to increase its desirable characteristics, sometimes thus decreasing or improving its nutritional value. People seek to preserve food and to improve its quality using a variety of techniques such as drying, canning, pickling, adding chemical preservatives, refrigeration, freezing and irradiation. The main aim of these processes is to allow foods to remain in good edible condition, without serious deterioration, for longer than would be possible if these preservation methods were not used.
The processes include cooking; adding substances to improve the taste or appearance of the food; taking measures to make the foods more nutritious, for instance adding micronutrients or germinating grains; and removing undesirable constituents, including toxins.
Some food processing techniques have multiple effects. For example, milling of cereal grains may make them less nutritious, but it may also make them easier to cook and digest and less likely to deteriorate on storage. Today food processing includes both traditional and some more industrial and modern techniques. Almost all aspects of food processing have some relevance to nutrition. The effects of various processes, including cooking, on the nutrient content of foods are summarized in Table In addition to those effects, milling and cooking break down cell walls so that nutrients are digested more easily.
Research, teaching and extension regarding modern techniques of food processing are within the domain of food scientists rather than nutritionists.
Food science is a very important subject which is advancing rapidly not only in academic institutions but also in the food industry, where large manufacturers often have advanced food science laboratories. Many books deal with food science, and some are included in the Bibliography. This chapter and Chapter 34 discuss those aspects of food processing that have an impact on the nutritional quality of foods consumed in developing countries or that influence their safety.
Fortification of foods with nutrients is an aspect of food processing directly aimed at reducing deficiency diseases. In ancient times and in traditional societies everywhere, cooking was and is the main food processing technique used. Humans learned to harness and make fire, and cooking their food became a way to improve the quality of their diets. Cooking techniques have changed much over the years in some societies and very little in others.
Many people still cook over open fires and on traditional stoves, but in contrast now almost a majority of households in Western Europe and North America have a microwave oven in the kitchen, a relatively new invention. Similarly, industry uses both old and new cooking methods. Cooking for example, in green leaves 35 percent and in potatoes25 percent of folate may be lost ;. Storage except for citrus or baobab fruits , drying. Chopping the foods into small pieces, preparing them long before cooking and cooking them long before eating.
Fermentation and germination increase the absorption of non-haem iron and other minerals;: By decreasing water content, drying foods increases the concentration of other nutrients.
Cooking is practised by almost everybody, everywhere. Except for fruits and some vegetables, most groups of foods are generally cooked before being eaten.
In many African and Asian countries even vegetables are seldom eaten uncooked, and there is little tradition of eating salads. The practice of cooking vegetables probably helps protect consumers from diseases. Most tropical fruits are eaten raw, but the exposed peel is not consumed so they do not present the same risk of infections.
Bananas, mangoes, papayas and citrus fruits, for example, are not dangerous because their peel is not eaten. Cooking of food is a universal practice mainly because it improves the taste of food, makes inedible foods edible or makes foods more digestible.
Cooking also kills organisms, including many disease-causing microorganisms in food. Cooking of high-starch foods including cereals rice, wheat, maize, etc. Cooking of some foods removes undesirable compounds such as antinutrients, for example trypsin inhibitors in soybeans and undesirable constituents in cassava. There is more to cooking than merely roasting, baking, grilling, or boiling of foods as gathered or harvested.