More on Type 2 Diabetes
After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. A fasting plasma glucose test measures blood glucose at a single point in time. I didn't know how sick I was till I got better. Check your blood glucose. Retrieved 10 February If you or someone you know experiences the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, contact your health-care provider.
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Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease. People with diabetes who have neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms. In , diabetes-related emergency room ER visit rates in the United States were higher among people from the lowest income communities per 10, population than from the highest income communities per 10, population.
Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Diabetes mellitus is also occasionally known as "sugar diabetes" to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus. In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats.
Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles.
Feline diabetes mellitus is strikingly similar to human type 2 diabetes. The Burmese breed, along with the Russian Blue, Abyssinian, and Norwegian Forest cat breeds, showed an increased risk of DM, while several breeds showed a lower risk. There is an association between overweight and an increased risk of feline diabetes. The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious.
Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin and management of emergencies e. Inhalable insulin has been developed. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications.
It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes. Around 3, people with type II diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose control or the standard of care, and again the treatment arm had far better outcomes. This confirmed the importance of tight glucose control, as well as blood pressure control, for people with this condition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Diabetes disambiguation. Complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetes mellitus type 2. Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test. Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. List of films featuring diabetes. Diabetes in dogs and Diabetes in cats. Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 25 March Archived PDF from the original on Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 30 May Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 4 April Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
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So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible. Past, Present, and Future".
Canadian Journal of Diabetes Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Progress in Lipid Research. National Diabetes Statistics ". Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 17 April Check date values in: National institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases.
Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 12 March Robbins Basic Pathology 8th ed. Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 24 April Ganong's review of medical physiology 24th ed. Harper's illustrated biochemistry 29th ed. Annals of Internal Medicine. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 29 January Archived PDF from the original on 11 May Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. A diabetic diet that promotes weight loss is important.
Vegetarian diets in general have been related to lower diabetes risk, but do not offer advantages compared with diets which allow moderate amounts of animal products. There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications available. Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;    however, this conclusion is questioned. A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.
Rosiglitazone , a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels. Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.
Vitamin D supplementation to people with type 2 diabetes may improve markers of insulin resistance and HbA1c. Weight loss surgery in those who are obese is an effective measure to treat diabetes. Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,   such as South Asians , Pacific Islanders , Latinos , and Native Americans.
Diabetes is one of the first diseases described  with an Egyptian manuscript from c. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Complications of diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle causes of diabetes mellitus type 2. Genetic causes of diabetes mellitus type 2. Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2. Archived from the original on 26 August Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 10 February African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences.
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Progress in Lipid Research. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. The Journal of Nutrition. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Journal of Internal Medicine. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure.
It's to blame for about half of new cases. Controlling your blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol can lower your risk for this complication. Yearly tests and medications can slow the disease and keep your kidneys healthy. High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of your eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy, and it can lead to vision loss.
Pools of blood, or hemorrhages, on the retina of an eye are visible in this image. Over time, uncontrolled diabetes and high blood sugar can cause nerve damage. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, pain, and a pins and needles sensation -- often in your fingers, hands, toes, or feet.
Controlling your diabetes can help prevent further harm. Diabetic nerve damage can make it hard to feel your feet. You might not notice wounds. At the same time, hardening of the arteries reduces blood flow to the area. Even a small injury can cause foot sores and gangrene. In severe cases, infections can result in an amputation. High blood sugar levels can feed the bacteria that make plaque. Plaque buildup leads to cavities, tooth decay, and gum disease.
Severe gum disease can cause tooth loss. It weakens gums and the tissues and bones that hold teeth in place. That makes it easier to get an infection, too. One of the most surprising things about type 2 diabetes is that you can avoid it.
To lower your risk, follow the same guidelines for warding off heart disease:. People with prediabetes can avoid getting diabetes with lifestyle changes and medication. Martin, MD on February 13, American College of Endocrinology. Annals of Family Medicine , MedlinePlus, National Institutes of Health: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Diabetes Care , New England Journal of Medicine, Reviewed by Laura J.