Also of Interest
Johnsgard Annotation Reviews comparative biology such as evolutionary aspects of bood parasitism, adaptations of structure, plumage, acoustics, and eggs, breeding behavior of the parasites as well as host defenses. Nutrient Requirements of Pheasants a Energy base. Their Care and Breeding by Jeffrey Trollope. Estrildid Finches of the World by Derek Goodwin. New South Wales, Australia:
Resources In This Article
If a bird consumes a diet that has a higher energy content, it will decrease its feed intake; consequently, that diet must contain a proportionally higher amount of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Thus, nutrient density in the ration should be adjusted to provide appropriate nutrient intake based on requirements and the actual feed intake.
Because of the ability of poultry to adjust their feed intake to accommodate a wide range of diets with differing energy content, the energy values listed in the nutrient requirement tables in this section Nutrient Requirements of Growing Pullets a through Linoleic Acid, Mineral, and Vitamin Requirements of Turkeys a should be regarded as guidelines rather than absolute requirements.
Nutrient levels should be adjusted to meet specific strain requirements, level of feed intake, and body weight and skeletal development. Different energy values may be appropriate depending on local ingredient prices and availability. However, there should be sufficient crude protein to ensure an adequate nitrogen supply for synthesis of nonessential amino acids.
Suggested requirements for crude protein are typical of those derived with corn-soybean meal diets, and levels can be reduced when synthetic amino acids are used. Different ME values may be appropriate if other ingredients predominate. For nutrients not listed, see nutrient requirements of broilers Nutrient Requirements of Broilers a as a guide. For nutrients not listed, see requirements of broilers Nutrient Requirements of Broilers a as a guide.
Appropriate body weight and fat deposition are important factors in rearing pullets for maximal egg production. Most strains of White Leghorn chickens have relatively low body weights and do not tend, under normal feeding, to become obese.
Feed is normally provided for ad lib intake to this strain of pullets. Broiler strains tend to become obese if fed ab lib; feed restriction is necessary for broiler pullets and broiler breeders. When feed restriction is practiced, the feed levels of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals must be proportionally increased to prevent deficiencies. Most large commercial breeders provide feed restriction and dietary nutrient guidelines specific for their strains.
Poultry, like all animals, synthesize proteins that contain 20 L -amino acids. Birds are unable to synthesize 9 of these amino acids because of the lack of specific enzymes: Histidine, glycine, and proline can be synthesized by birds, but the rate is usually insufficient to meet metabolic needs and a dietary source is required. These 12 amino acids are referred to as the essential amino acids. Tyrosine and cysteine can be synthesized from phenylalanine and methionine, respectively, and are referred to as conditionally essential because they must be in the diet if phenylalanine or methionine levels are inadequate.
The diet must also supply sufficient amounts of nitrogen to allow the synthesis of nonessential amino acids. Essential amino acids are often added to the diet in purified form eg, DL -methionine and L -lysine to minimize the total protein level as well as the cost of the diet.
This has the added advantage of minimizing nitrogen excretion. One IU of vitamin D is equal to 0. Ergocalciferol vitamin D 2 is used with an efficiency of 3 in poultry. Vitamin E requirements vary with type and level of fat in the diet, the levels of selenium and trace minerals, and the presence or absence of other antioxidants. When diets high in long-chain highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are fed, vitamin E levels should be increased considerably.
Choline is required as an integral part of the body phospholipid, as a part of acetylcholine, and as a source of methyl groups. Growing chickens can also use betaine as a methylating agent. Betaine is widely distributed in practical feedstuffs and can spare the requirement for choline but cannot completely replace it in the diet.
All vitamins are subject to degradation over time, and this process is accelerated by moisture, oxygen, trace minerals, heat, and light. Stabilized vitamin preparations and generous margins of safety are often applied to account for these losses. This is especially true if diets are pelleted, extruded, or stored for long periods.
Much of the phosphorus in feedstuffs of plant origin is complexed by phytate and is not absorbed efficiently by poultry. Consequently, it is critical that only the available phosphorus and not the total phosphorus levels be considered. Appropriate calcium nutrition depends on both the level of calcium and its ratio to that of available phosphorus.
For growing poultry, this ratio should not deviate substantially from 2: The calcium requirement of laying hens is very high and increases with the rate of egg production and age of the hen.
The chick has requirements for 38 nutrients, together with an adequate level of metabolizable energy and water. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation 5th ed. Annotation Although reading pages on disinfectants and all of the chemistry involved in their mechanisms and activities may not sound particularly riveting, this book thankfully has an entire chapter dedicated to "Disinfection and Disease Prevention in Veterinary Medicine" Ch. Therefore if you are able to find a copy of this book, please refer to pages to answer any of your questions about disinfectants and their uses.
Buy this book 5. Buy this book Annotation - Recommended Book If you buy just one avian veterinary medical text, I recommend that you get this one. Although it may be a bit expensive, it covers so many topics in detail that it is well worth its cost. Examples of topics include: This book includes many descriptive color photographs and even has an entire 28 page section dedicated just to passeriformes the order of birds to which finches belong.
Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds 3rd ed. Other presented topics include: Buy this book 7. Annotation This fairly expensive text does not go into any great detail about any topic, although it does cover basic anatomy, physiology, and nutrition, and it does contain a somewhat scant section on passerines and exotic softbills.
A Birdkeeper's Guide to Finches by David Alderton Annotation This little paged book features beautiful color photographs and a fairly extensive species section which briefly describes the distribution, size, diet, sexing, and compatibility of many finch species. Unfortunately because this is not a medical text, the advice presented in it related to nutrition and illness is often misleading or incorrect and should not be considered reliable.
Buy this book 9. Buy this book Annotation This book is a fun reference text compiled from a vast scope of interesting facts and figures related to the birds of the world.
Although it does not offer much by way of advice for husbandry practices and so forth, it is a book to look in if you want to know the approximate total plasma protein ratio in a crow, or the frequency range of the robin's song signal. Paperback, pages several of which are duplicates, perhaps due to a printing error--at least in my copy of this book.
Blazey Annotation Wonderful photos fill up most of the book, leaving little-to-no room for information, so unfortunately this book is fairly basic. Poor coverage on health matters, with a scant description of many finch species. Buy this book It is fairly informative, and covers over species, separating them into categories: Unfortunately because this is not a medical text, the advice presented in it related to nutrition should not be considered reliable.
It is a hardback, pages long. Very nice color photos, paperback, 98 pages, but not very detailed. Also, because this is not a medical text, the advice presented in it related to nutrition should not be considered reliable.
Also covers other topics including anatomy, housing, and breeding. Although basic health and nutrition are also presented, these topics are better explored in an avian veterinary medical text. Mobbs Annotation Literally covers everything from Accommodation to Zebra Finch, including but not limited to exhibiting finches, line breeding, live food, etc.
Contains a little bit about everything one needs to know about Australian finches and their care, but is not very detailed in many cases, and information presented on diet is not always reliable.
Gorgeous color pictures, and some nice black and white ones. Gouldian Finches by Matthew M. Buy this book Annotation Although this book claims that it covers everything about purchase, housing, care, nutrition, breeding, and diseases, one can easily make the argument that everything about all of those topics cannot possibly be covered in its mere 80 pages.
The photographs are vibrant, although the "diluted yellow gouldian" pictured on the upper right hand corner of p. Additionally because this is not a medical text, much of the advice presented in it related to health and nutrition should not be considered reliable. Manual of Avian Medicine by Glenn H. It is written in an easy-to-follow outline format. Manual of Avian Practice by Agnes E.
Rupley, DVM, ABVP Buy this book Annotation - Recommended Book This book is written for veterinarians including information such as "how to take a history and do a physical exam," but has a lot of useful information which pet bird owners may find useful.
Paperback, pages, sparse pictures mostly black and white. Sturkie's Avian Physiology by Colin G. Scanes Annotation This book contains some very detailed information about topics which are very specific to avian physiology.
The subjects are pretty dry and may be most useful for researchers working with birds. It covers vision, hearing, chemical senses, the spinal cord, motor control, the avian nervous system, skeletal muscle, cardiovascular system, respiration, flight, energy balance, regulation of body temperature, endocrinology, reproduction, incubation, growth and development, etc. It covers everything from building nestboxes to building "all weather" outdoor aviaries, as well as information on how to wire the aviary for light and power.
It is important to keep in mind that although most of the construction recommends using wood, wood is impossible to disinfect. This means that if you decide to build a "hospital cage" out of wood as described in this book, you cannot reuse the hospital cage unless other measures are taken to "seal" the wood so that the surfaces inside the cage may be disinfected.
Drawings are fairly easy to follow and understand. I recommend ignoring the section on "nutrition" entirely since better information is available through veterinary medical texts. Additionally, the genetics section unfortunately states "not enough is known at this time" when describing the mechanism which produces many of the newer colorations.
The section on health and disease may be applicable to many species of finches. Lots of color photographs. Munias and Mannikins by Robin Restall Buy this book Annotation - Recommended Book Detailed examination of about 40 finch species within the genus Lonchura , with field notes including physical description, distribution and habitat, habits, food, and breeding. This is a very interesting read for owners of Lonchura spp.
Some information on captive behavior is available for a few of the species. The paintings are very helpful in showing which birds belong to which species. Australian Finches in the Bush and Aviary by Klaus Immelmann Annotation - Recommended Book Although a somewhat old text original copyright , this book provides plenty of detail about australian finches, including: Estrildid Finches of the World by Derek Goodwin Buy this book Annotation - Recommended Book Written by an ornithologist, this text covers Estrildidae nomenclature, distribution, coloration, nestling mouth patterns, biology, plumage, species behavior including feeding habits, preening, parental care, display, voice , as well as some advice for keeping the different species.
The estrildid group of finches includes Australian firetails and grassfinches, African waxbills and firefinches, munias, avadavats, and parrot finches. Exotic Animal Formulary, 4e by James W. Carpenter Annotation Veterinary formulary that gives drug doses per species and drug information. Covers numerous species of birds as well as many other exotic species such as fish, reptiles, rodents, rabbits, etc.
Buy this book Annotation This is a revised and updated version. Written by a veterinarian, this text covers general information for the benefit of bird owners. Although this is not a medical text nor written specifically about finches, it is an easy-to-understand reference which covers a wide range of topics related to caring for birds, including: Comparative Avian Nutrition by Kirk C. Klasing Annotation In-depth information is provided in this book, covering the nutritional and physiological topics of: Avian Medicine and Surgery by Robert B.
Altman, DVM Buy this book Annotation Written by veterinarians, this extensive text covers both basic and advanced clinical avian medicine and aviculture, and is geared toward avian practitioners. Clinical Avian Medicine by G. Harrison, DVM Annotation - Recommended Book This two volume set is written by avian veterinarians and is very extensive with numerous photographs.
Rosskopf, Jr, DVM Buy this book Annotation This little book is a compilation of veterinary medical articles written by the authors as well as guest editors who are veterinarians. It briefly touches on a broad range of subjects and may be considered helpful for an avian practitioner.
The Complete Book of Finches and Softbills: Their Care and Breeding by David Alderton Annotation This book focuses mainly on advice regarding housing, nutrition, and health concerns. For each bird, covers: Zann Annotation Very comprehensive book pertaining to the zebra finch based on scientific study of the species. Covers such topics as evolutionary history, distribution and habitat, morphology, domestication, moulting, diet, foraging, nesting activity and diet, drinking, thermoregulation, coloniality, nesting, incubation and hatching, intra-specific brood parasitism, development of young, breeding periodicity, opportunistic breeding, social and reproductive behavior, mate choice, vocalisations, and much more.
A Manual of European Bird Keeping by Frank Meaden Buy this book Annotation Discusses housing, feeding, and has some interesting takes on nest site ideas primarily for use in an aviary setting. Includes notes habitat, aviary, food, breeding on a few finch species.
Finches and Other Seed-eating Birds by Robin Restall Buy this book Annotation Covers housing, food, breeding, and provides notes and descriptions on a fair number of species including those of Emberizinae, Fringillinae, Estrildidae, Amadinae, Erythrurae.
The Gouldian Finch by Stewart Evans Annotation Covers information on natural habitat, "life under natural conditions," captive history, housing, nutrition, cage and colony breeding methods, genetics, selective breeding, mutations, diseases, and exhibition. The Healthy Bird Cookbook: Practical Incubation Revised Edition by Rob Harvey Buy this book Annotation Details artificial incubation of eggs including handling of eggs, hygiene, monitoring, and incubator set up.
Hancock House Encyclopedia of Estrildid Finches by Matthew Vriends Annotation Introductory information on such topics as pet finch origin, housing, shipping, common illnesses, food, breeding; also includes descriptions of species dating mostly from the s.
Quite possibly the most extensive book on captive finches ever published in an easy-to-read format. Covers breeding, conservation, health, housing, husbandry, nutrition.
Details many species describing such things as gender identification, natural distribution and habitat, field notes, keeping and breeding including degree of difficulty, specific health issues, behavior, color mutations, hybridization, and much more. The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at the Nest by Paul A. Johnsgard Annotation Reviews comparative biology such as evolutionary aspects of bood parasitism, adaptations of structure, plumage, acoustics, and eggs, breeding behavior of the parasites as well as host defenses.
Goes on to discuss the specifics of a number of avian brood parasites, including African parasitic finches of family Passeridae , which includes indigobirds as well as whydahs. Danny Brown Buy this book Annotation Written for the pet owner with an interest in performing home microscopy. Avian Embryology, 2nd Edition by Marianne Bronner-Fraser Annotation Extremely dry book regarding avian embryology, primarily based on studies of chicken and quail embryos.
Geared toward the research scientist interested in having a guide to the use of the avian embryos in studies of vertebrate development. Covers preparation and sealing of eggs, generation of chimeras, cell division and differentiation, time-lapse imaging of the early avian embryo, and more.
Landry Buy this book Annotation Covers the mutations of zebra finch available in the United States, including: Hill Annotation Describes the effect of light on color communication, the mechanics of carotenoid-based, melanin-based, and uncommon coloration pterins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins , as well as the anatomy, physics, and evolution of structural colors.
Goes on to explain the hormonal control of coloration, the genetic basis of color variation in wild birds, and environmental regulation of ornamental coloration. Hand-Rearing Birds by Laurie J. Gage, DVM Buy this book Annotation Detailed book on techniques for hand raising a wide variety of specific bird species. Avian Medicine and Surgery in Practice by Bob Doneley Annotation Veterinary medical text covering disorders of skin and feathers, beak and cere, eye, ear, legs feet and toes, musculoskeletal system, intestinal tract, liver, pancreas, cardiovascular system, lymphatic and haematopoietic systems, nervous system, reproductive tract, and urinary system.
Also covers incubation of eggs and pediatrics. Does not have a chapter dedicated to finches; focuses primarily on hookbills. Each topic includes basic information such as risk factors and associated conditions, clinical presentation, etiology and pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prognosis.
Helpful as a quick reference, but not very comprehensive. Avian Structure and Function by Noble S. Proctor Annotation General but detailed and heavily illustrated anatomical guide covering feathers, the skeleton, musculature, the digestive system, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, urogenital and endocrine systems, and the nervous system.
Avian Immunology 2nd Edition by Karel A. Schat Buy this book Annotation Extremely detailed text on the immune system of birds, primarily based on research done in poultry. Covers structure of the lymphoid system, development of the immune system, the mucosal, respiratory, enteric, and reproductive immune systems, immunosuppressive diseases, autoimmune diseases of poultry , and tumors of the immune system.
Avian Medicine, 3e by Jaime Samour Annotation Book has been pre-ordered; review to be completed upon receipt of book. Speer Buy this book Annotation Book has been pre-ordered; review to be completed upon receipt of book. Mullen Annotation Discusses ecto- and endo-parasites of veterinary and human health importance, including vector-borne disease and arthropods which serve as intermediate hosts of parasites.
Atkinson Buy this book Annotation Focuses on the effects of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropod parasites on avian hosts. Coles Annotation Truly just the "essentials" for an avian practitioner interested in a refresher on performing necropsies, radiographs, anesthesia and surgery.
Does not go into any great detail on specific diseases, husbandry, or finches. Avian Pet Medicine by Agnes E.