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However, an alternative method is under development which may use a scale to indicate the degree of compliance is under development. Cardiovascular Disease , Cancer. The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of 1-year-olds who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year. Nutrition guides can be presented in written or visual form, and are commonly published by government agencies , health associations and university health departments.
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It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. However, despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, its use has been limited in programme settings, possibly due to a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level.
This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement including iron and folic acid tablets IFA , multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary by country policy.
Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes and enhance maternal and infant health. Iron and folic acid supplementation improve iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective.
Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects. Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality and also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight. Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves.
Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system. Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and with reduced neurocognitive development.
Demographic and Health Surveys. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution.
The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms. Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.
Children with diarrhoea receiving zinc. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea. Unfortunately, there are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLIS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects in order to assess their national capacity.
Measures to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes include promoting zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children under 5, making them the second most-common cause of child death worldwide. The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea.
WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective. Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months.
Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies.
Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively. The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year.
Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas. The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months. Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities.
The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements. The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly. Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year. To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe. Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others.
The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies. The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year. National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.
Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond.
Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.
This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year. Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.
Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children.
Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization. While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive. Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately. The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine.
Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders. Monitoring the situation of women and children. Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders.
Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption. This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived.
The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.
FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food.
Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country. The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health.
It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group.
FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'. Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population.
Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity.
Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety. Rome, October The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. FAO, Rome, 9 October Infant and young child feeding.
The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality.
Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.
The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers.
An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness.
Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.
It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.
WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide.
Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity.
As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as: A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months. Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality.
Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators. Infant and Young Child Feeding database. Infant and young child feeding list of publications. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding.
This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding. It is the proportion of children aged months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution and continued feeding. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost-effective intervention indicates progress towards the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Health expenditure includes that for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but excludes the provision of water and sanitation. Health financing is a critical component of health systems. National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information on expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework. National health accounts consist of a synthesis of the financing and spending flows recorded in the operation of a health system, from funding sources and agents to the distribution of funds between providers and functions of health systems and benefits geographically, demographically, socioeconomically and epidemiologically.
General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is the proportion of total government expenditure on health. General government expenditure includes consolidated direct and indirect outlays, such as subsidies and transfers, including capital, of all levels of government social security institutions, autonomous bodies and other extrabudgetary funds.
It consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds.
GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds.
Private health expenditure is the sum of outlays for health by private entities, such as commercial or mutual health insurance providers, non-profit institutions serving households, resident corporations and quasi-corporations not controlled by government involved in health services delivery or financing, and direct household out-of-pocket payments. These indicators reflect total and public expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition.
Although increasing health expenditures are associated with better health outcomes, especially in low-income countries, there is no 'recommended' level of spending on health. The larger the per capita income, the greater the expenditure on health. Some countries, however, spend appreciably more than would be expected from their income levels, and some appreciably less.
When a government spends little of its GDP or attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition , are not regarded as priorities. National health accounts - World Health Statistics, http: Human development report http: Core health indicators http: Human development report indicator glossary for indicator 3. Wealth, health and health expenditure. General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is defined as the level of general government expenditure on health GGHE expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure.
The indicator contributes to understanding the weight of public spending on health within the total value of public sector operations. It includes not just the resources channelled through government budgets but also the expenditure on health by parastatals, extrabudgetary entities and notably the compulsory health insurance. The indicator refers to resources collected and pooled by public agencies including all the revenue modalities. The indicator provides information on the level of resources channelled to health relative to a country's wealth.
These indicators reflect government and total expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition, in relation to government expenditure, the wealth of the country, and per capita. When a government attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition , are not regarded as priorities. UNDAFs usually focus on three to five areas in which the country team can make the greatest difference, in addition to activities supported by other agencies in response to national demands but which fall outside the common UNDAF results matrix.
For each national priority selected for United Nations country team support, the UNDAF results matrix gives the outcome s , the outcomes and outputs of other agencies working alone or together, the role of partners, resource mobilization targets for each agency outcome and coordination mechanisms and programme modalities.
The nutrition component of the UNDAF reflects the priority attributed to nutrition by the United Nations agencies in a country and is an indication of how much the United Nations system is committed to helping governments improve their food and nutrition situation. The indicator is "strong", "medium" or "weak", depending on the degree to which nutrition is being addressed in the expected outcomes and outputs in the UNDAF. UNDAF documents follow a predefined format, with a core narrative and a results matrix.
The matrix lists the high-level expected results 'the UNDAF outcomes' , the outcomes to be reached by agencies working alone or together and agency outputs. The results matrix the UNDAF document was used to assess commitment to nutrition , because it represents a synthesis of the strategy proposed in the document and is available in the same format in most country documents. The outcomes and outputs specifically related to nutrition were identified and counted. The outputs were compared with the evidence-based interventions to reduce maternal and child under nutrition recommended in the Lancet Nutrition Series Bhutta et al.
The method and scoring are described in detail by Engesveen et al. What are the implications? A weak nutrition component in the UNDAF document does not necessarily imply that no United Nations agency in the country is working to improve nutrition ; however, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents like the UNDAF, they may receive inadequate attention from development partners to ensure the necessary sustainability or scale-up to adequately address nutrition problems in the country.
The multisectoral nature of nutrition means that it must be addressed by a wide range of actors. Basing such action in frameworks for overall development contributes to ensuring the accountability of United Nations partners.
Interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival. The Lancet Engesveen K et al. SCN News , Nutrition component of poverty reduction strategy papers.
The poverty reduction strategy approach was introduced in to empower governments to set their own priorities and to encourage donors to provide predictable, harmonized assistance aligned with country priorities. The PRSP should state the development priorities and specify the policies, programmes and resources needed to meet the goals. It is prepared by governments in a participatory process involving civil society and development partners, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and should result in a comprehensive, country-based strategy for poverty reduction.
The indicator is "strong", "medium" or "weak", depending on the degree to which nutrition is addressed in the PRSP, in terms of recognition of under nutrition as a development problem, use of information on nutrition to analyse poverty and support for appropriate nutrition policies, strategies and programmes. The papers were systematically searched for key words to identify the parts that concerned nutrition , food security , health outcomes and interventions that would be relevant for the World Bank method.
In order to classify the commitments to nutrition in the PRSPs, a scoring system was developed, which is described in more detail by Engesveen et al. The emphasis given to nutrition in PRSPs reflects the extent to which the government considers it essential to improve nutrition for poverty reduction and national development. In other words, it can be an indication of the government's priority for improving nutrition.
A strong nutrition component in a PRSP means that the government considers nutrition a priority for poverty reduction and national development.
A weak nutrition component in the document does not necessarily imply that no government department is working to improve nutrition ; however, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents like PRSPs, they may not be sufficiently sustainable or be scaled-up to adequately address nutrition problems in the country.
Basing such action in frameworks for overall development contributes to ensuring the accountability of relevant government departments. Sources and further reading. Poverty reduction strategy papers. Assessing countries' commitment to accelerate nutrition action demonstrated in poverty reduction strategy paper, UNDAF and through nutrition governance. SCN News , , Shekar M, Lee Y-K. Mainstreaming nutrition in poverty reduction strategy papers: What does it take?
A review of the early experience. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper, Landscape analysis on countries' readiness to accelerate action in nutrition , This indicator is a description of the strengths and weaknesses of various aspects of nutrition governance in countries. The following 10 elements or characteristics are used to assess and describe the strength of nutrition governance: These elements were identified by countries as key elements for successful development and implementation of national nutrition policies and strategies during a review of the progress of countries in implementing the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition adopted by the International Conference on Nutrition, the first intergovernmental conference on nutrition Nishida et al.
The components of the composite indicator have been identified by countries as important for determining the completeness of national nutrition plans and policies Nishida, Mutru, Imperial Laue , For instance, a national nutrition plan and policy was considered to provide the political basis for initiating action.
In many countries, official government endorsement or adoption of a national nutrition plan or policy facilitated its implementation. The role of an intersectoral coordinating committee in implementing national nutrition plans and policies was also considered crucial, although the nature i. Another important element was considered to be regular surveys and other means of collecting data on nutrition. A periodically updated national nutrition information system and routinely collected data on food and nutrition were considered important for evaluating the effectiveness of national nutrition plans and policies and identifying subsequent actions.
Strategies for effective and sustainable national nutrition plans and policies. Modern aspects of nutrition , present knowledge and future perspective. Basel , Karger Forum for Nutrition 56 , This indicates whether a government has adopted legislation to monitor and enforce the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, which helps create an environment that enables mothers to make the best possible feeding choice, based on impartial information and free of commercial influences, and to be fully supported in doing so.
This indicator is defined on the basis of whether a government has adopted legislation for effective national implementation and monitoring of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. The Code is a set of recommendations to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes, feeding bottles and teats. The Code aims to contribute "to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution" Article 1.
Improper marketing and promotion of food products that compete with breastfeeding often negatively affect the choice and ability of a mother to breastfeed her infant optimally.
The Code was formulated in response to the realization that such marketing resulted in poor infant feeding practices, which negatively affect the growth, health and development of children and are a major cause of mortality in infants and young children. Breastfeeding practices worldwide are not yet optimal, in both developing and developed countries, especially for exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months of age.
In addition to the risks posed by the lack of the protective qualities of breast milk, breast-milk substitutes and feeding bottles are associated with a high risk for contamination that can lead to life-threatening infections in young infants.
Infant formula is not a sterile product, and it may carry germs that can cause fatal illnesses. Artificial feeding is expensive, requires clean water, the ability of the mother or caregiver to read and comply with mixing instructions and a minimum standard of overall household hygiene. These factors are not present in many households in the world. Frequently asked questions , These indicators provide information on national policies for legal entitlement to maternity protection, including leave from work during pregnancy and after birth, as well breastfeeding entitlements after return to work.
Since the International Labour Organization ILO was founded in , international labour standards have been established to provide maternity protection for women workers. Key elements of maternity protection include: The right to cash benefits during absence for maternity leave is intended to ensure that the woman can maintain herself and her child in proper conditions of health and with a suitable standard of living.
The source of benefits is important due to potential discrimination in the labour market if employers have to bear the full costs.
The right to continue breastfeeding a child after returning to work is important since duration of leave entitlements generally is shorter than the WHO recommended duration of exclusive and continued breastfeeding. A composite indicator on maternity protection is included as a policy environment and capacity indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
It currently uses the ILO classification of compliance with Convention on three key provisions leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits , but an alternative method taking into account higher standards as stated in Recommendation as well as breastfeeding entitlements is under development.
The ILO periodically publishes information on the above key indicators, including the assessment of compliance with Convention No. However, an alternative method is under development which may use a scale to indicate the degree of compliance is under development. This method will also take into account higher standards for leave duration and remuneration in Recommendation , as well as breastfeeding entitlements within both the Convention and Recommendation.
Pregnancy and maternity are potentially vulnerable time for working women and their families. Expectant and nursing mothers require special protection to prevent any potential adverse effects for them and their infants.
They need adequate time to give birth, to recover from delivery process, and to nurse their children. At the same time, they also require income security and protection to ensure that they will not suffer from income loss or lose their job because of pregnancy or maternity leave. Such protection not only ensures a woman's equal access and right to employment, it also ensures economic sustainability for the well-being of the family.
Returning to work after maternity leave has been identified as a significant cause for never starting breastfeeding, early cessation of breastfeeding and lack of exclusive breastfeeding. In most low- and middle-income countries, paid maternity leave is limited to formal sector employment or is not always provided in practice. The ILO estimates that more than million women lack economic security around childbirth with adverse effects on the health, nutrition and well-being of mothers and their children.
Maternity cash benefits for workers in the informal economy. Rollins et al Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? Database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation. The legislative data are collected by ILO through periodical reviews of national labour and social security legislation and secondary sources, such as the International Social Security Association and International Network on Leave Policies and Research; as well as consultations with ILO experts in regional and national ILO offices around the world.
The composite indicator on maternity protection included in the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework is currently defined as whether the country has maternity protection laws or regulations in place compliant with the provisions for leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits in Convention Documentation for the maternity protection database http: Degree training in nutrition exists. What does the indicator tell us? This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to train professionals in nutrition in terms of having national higher education institutions offering training in nutrition.
This indicator is defined as the existence of higher education institutions offering training in nutrition in the country. Higher education training institutions include universities and other schools offering graduate and post-graduate degrees in nutrition or dietetics, including public health nutrition, community nutrition, food and nutrition policy, clinical nutrition, nutrition science and epidemiology.
Trained nutrition professionals work at facilities including health facilities as well as at population and community levels and may influence nutrition policies, and designing and implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels. They also play an important role in training of other health and non-health cadres to plan and deliver nutrition interventions in various settings.
It is recognized that availability, within a country, of sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns.
A competency framework for global public health nutrition workforce development: World Public Health Nutrition Association. Registering as Registered Nutritionist. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: Nutrition is part of medical curricula. This indicator reflects the inclusion of maternal, infant and young child nutrition in pre-service training of health personnel.
This indicator is defined as the existence of pre-service training in maternal, infant and young child nutrition for health personnel. The survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition, namely growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition.
The first two of these three training topics are relevant for all forms of malnutrition, whereas the third topic only pertains to undernutrition. Training on other topics e. Adequate training of health professionals is essential to ensure that nutrition activities are included in their regular health care activities.
Nutrition counseling training changes physician behavior and improves caregiver knowledge acquisition. Nutrition Journal ; Trained nutrition professionals density. The focus of the nutrition professional indicator is on individuals trained to pursue a nutrition professional career, described in most countries as dieticians or nutritionists including nutrition scientists, nutritional epidemiologists and public health nutritionists.
These individuals are trained sufficiently in nutrition practice to demonstrate defined competencies and to meet certification or registration requirements of national or global nutrition or dietetics professional organizations. Dieticians and nutritionists may complete the same training and perform the same functions in some countries but not others. This indicator is defined as the number of trained nutrition professionals per , population in the country in a specified year. Validation of the indicator has shown that it can predict several maternal, infant and young child nutrition outcomes.
Global nutrition monitoring framework: Density of nurses and midwi ves. Nurse and midwife density indicates whether nurses and midwifery personnel are available to address the health care needs of a given population. It is the number of nursing and midwifery personnel and density per 10 population. These personnel include professional nurses, professional midwives, auxiliary nurses, auxiliary midwives, enrolled nurses, enrolled midwives and other personnel, such as dental nurses and primary care nurses.
Traditional attendants are not counted here but as community or traditional health workers. There is no gold standard for a sufficient health workforce to address the health care needs of a given population. It has been estimated, however, that countries with fewer than 25 health-care professionals counting only physicians, nurses and midwives per 10 population fail to achieve adequate coverage rates for selected primary health care interventions that are priorities in the Millennium Development Goals.
The World Health Report Working together for health. The World Health Report papers. Nutrition guides can be presented in written or visual form, and are commonly published by government agencies , health associations and university health departments. Most countries also have nutrition facts labels which are not listed here; many of those reference specific target amounts for various nutrients.
The Hippocratic Corpus of Ancient Greece contains one of the earliest known nutrition guides. It recommends a seasonal diet. For winter , it advises eating a heavy diet of bread and roasted meat and fish, while avoiding vegetables and restricting liquids to, if anything, strong wine.
It then recommends a lighter summer diet of soft barley cake, vegetables, boiled meat, and large quantities of diluted wine. Gradual transitions between these two diets are advised in the intervening months. During the Tang Dynasty , Chinese physician Sun Simiao is believed to have written the first nutrition guide in traditional Chinese medicine. In his book, Precious Prescriptions for Emergencies Chinese: Beiji qianjin yaofang , the chapter "Dietary Treatment" Chinese: Shiji contains sections describing the effects of eating fruits, vegetables, grains and animals.
Amid high food prices in , Sweden 's National Board of Health and Welfare developed the idea of "basic foods" that were both cheap and nutritious , and "supplemental foods" that added nutrition missing from the basic foods.
KF , a consumer co-op that worked with the Board, sought to illustrate these food groups. KF developed a food pyramid because it could depict basic foods as its base, and introduced the guide to the public in in their magazine, Vi. At the base were bread, cereals, potatoes, milk, cheese and margarine; above it was a large section of supplemental vegetables and fruit ; and at the top was an apex of supplemental meat, fish and eggs. The pyramid competed with the National Board's "dietary circle," which KF saw as problematic for resembling a cake divided into seven slices, and for not indicating how much of each food should be eaten.
While the Board distanced itself from the pyramid, KF continued to promote it, and food pyramids were developed in other Scandinavian countries, plus West Germany , Japan and Sri Lanka. The United States later developed its first food pyramid in Below the wheel are reminders to drink plenty of water and eat fats and sweets occasionally or in small amounts.
Die Österreichische Ernährungspyramide , which is divided into 25 blocks, each block representing a daily serving from a food group.
Starting at the base, there are six servings of non-alcoholic beverages preferably low-energy drinks like water, tea, unsweetened fruit juice and vegetable juice ; three servings of vegetables and legumes; two of fruit; four of cereals, bread, pasta, rice and potatoes preferably whole grains ; three of milk and dairy two "white," like milk, yogurt or cream cheese, and one of yellow cheese ; one of fats and oil preferably olive or canola oil ; three of meat, fish, sausage and eggs preferably fish or lean meat ; and three of fatty, sweet and salty foods though not nutritionally recommended and to be consumed rarely.
The Voedingsdriehoek is a mostly in Flanders widely used tool for dietitians, health educators, schools, etc. The triangle is constructed as a pyramid with five different layers.
The bottom layer is the largest in area, so the most important, the top is narrow and there represents little food, although it is an essential ingredient. The layers are from top to bottom: This is not a food, but an important part of a healthy diet and lifestyle. The information services use the "active" food pyramid. Guia Alimentar , which features a map of Brazil depicting each of Brazil's five regions as puzzle pieces representing a food group.
However, Brazil's food recommendations differ from the map, and feature eight food groups: Canada's Food Guide from Health Canada is illustrated with a rainbow of four food groups: Canada developed its first nutrition guide in as part of its wartime nutrition program. Cereals are at the large base; topped by vegetables and fruits; then fish, poultry, meat, eggs and other animal foods; followed by milk and soy foods; and topped with fats and oils in the small spire.
Beside the pagoda are images representing water and exercise. Kostkompasset to depict its "Dietary 8" Danish: Le Guide Alimentaire Pour Tous.
Each guide is based on a consumer's personality, habits and lifestyle. There are guides for people who: Each guide features a "portrait" in the image of a happy face designed out of foods representing that consumer's type. The portraits are billed as nutrition recommendations, though they are more decorative than informative. Ernährungspyramide , which divides a pyramid into 22 blocks, each block representing a hand-sized serving from a food group.
Starting at the base, there are six blocks for beverages, three for vegetables, two for fruit, four for grains, three for dairy, one for meat and fish, one for oils, one for fats, and one for sweets and alcohol. Beverages, vegetables, fruit and grains are marked green for "free travel"; meat and dairy are marked yellow for "caution"; and oils, fats, sweets and alcohol are marked red for "brake lights". The pyramid has a base of beans and legumes to eat adequately, a second layer of vegetables and fruit to eat liberally, a third layer of meat, fish, eggs and oils to eat moderately, and an apex of fatty, salty and sugary foods to eat sparingly.
Accompanying the pyramid is a recommendation of regular exercise and physical activity, as well as warnings against drinking alcohol and smoking. At least 8 cups of water a day are also recommended. The Food Pyramid Hebrew: At the wide base is water; followed by starches, including pasta, bread, corn and yams; then fruits and vegetables; then meat, fish, eggs and dairy; then fats and oils; and finally sugary foods at the small apex. Images around the pyramid represent exercise.
Piramide Alimentare Italiana , which is divided into squares, triangles, trapezoids and rectangles that represent one, one-half, one-and-a-half, and two servings, respectively. Beginning from the base, the divisions are: Along the edges of the pyramid are triangles representing physical activity. The pyramid is intended to represent the variety of foods eaten over an entire week, averaged into daily portions. Also provided is an alternative, more traditional pyramid for a single day, divided into six layers representing six food groups; as well as two additional pyramids for children.
The Food Guide Japanese: At the large upper level is a staple meal of carbohydrates, including rice, bread and noodles 5 to 7 servings a day ; followed below by a side dish of vegetables, potatoes, beans except soybeans , mushrooms and seaweed 5 to 6 ; then a smaller main course of protein, including meat, fish, eggs and soy 3 to 5 ; and finally the narrow point, divided between dairy 2 and fruit 2.
The top's handle is filled with "essential" water and tea, and running in circles around the handle is a figure representing moderate exercise. A small motion line beside the top represents sweet beverages in moderation.
El Plato del Bien Comer , which is divided into thirds: The guide further recommends eating "many" vegetables and fruits and "enough" cereals. The legume and animal products section is subdivided, and "few" animal products are recommended, while the guide recommends combining the larger legume section with cereals.
Additional recommendations are to include each of the three food groups in each of the three main meals of the day, to eat the greatest possible variety of food, to eat according to individual needs and conditions, and to eat the least possible fats, oils, sugar and salt. De Schijf van Vijf , which is divided into five groups: More specific recommendations are provided based on age and gender. A person is pedaling the bicycle, representing exercise. More specific recommendations are provided based on age, gender and life stage.
Before , South Korea used a food pagoda model very similar to China's current guide. It is divided into beverages and water at the base; an equal division between physical activity and a combination of grains, vegetables, tubers, fruit, olive oil and dairy in the second level, which is labeled "several times a day" and color-coded green; an equal division between sports and a combination of meat, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts in the third level, which is labeled "several times a week" and is color-coded orange; and an apex of saturated fats, sugars, salt, and sedentary activity labeled "occasionally" and color-coded red.
Tallriksmodellen , which divides a plate into approximately 40 percent potatoes, rice, pasta and bread; 40 percent vegetables and fruit; and 20 percent meat, fish, eggs and legumes.
People requiring more energy are allowed a larger share of carbohydrates, while people who are overweight can make up to half their plate vegetables and fruit. Previously, Sweden used the Dietary Circle created in , while Swedish consumer cooperative KF created the world's first food pyramid in Lebensmittelpyramide developed by the Swiss Society for Nutrition.