Female Reproductive System

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Reproductive system
Generally, hemorrhaging problems can be traced back to the feeding of diets with moldy grain or other ingredients that contain molds. This water-soluble vitamin is a constituent of two important enzyme systems involved with carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Seminal vesicles are paired, typically elongated and coiled fibromuscular sacs that empty into either the spermatic duct or the urethra. Venereal transmission from shedding rams is possible. A doula does not require a medical degree, but requires certification in some states. Ewes do not usually appear sick.

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At the junction of the labia minora is the clitoris, a small structure that is covered by a skin fold called the prepuce. The clitoris is comparable to the male penis and is highly sensitive.

The menstrual cycle is the monthly cycle of follicle and egg maturation, release of an egg ovulation , and preparation of the uterine lining for pregnancy. If a woman does not become pregnant , the uterine lining tissue is shed as menstrual blood.

Most menstrual cycles occur every 28 days. Menarche is the time during adolescence when menstrual periods begin. Menstrual periods continue to occur until a woman reaches menopause. The follicular phase is the beginning of the menstrual cycle. It starts on the first day of menstrual bleeding and usually lasts about 14 days. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are released from the pituitary gland to stimulate the ovaries.

In turn, the ovaries produce estrogen and stimulate the maturation of about 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries inside small cystic areas known as follicles. Once estrogen levels begin to rise, the secretion of FSH is reduced by a feedback system so that follicle stimulation ceases at the appropriate time. With time, one of the egg follicles or rarely, two or more becomes dominant, and maturation of the other follicles is interrupted.

The dominant follicle continues to make estrogen. Ovulation occurs at the midpoint of the menstrual cycle. Estrogen production from the dominant follicle leads to a sharp rise in LH secretion, causing the dominant follicle to release its egg.

The egg is swept into the Fallopian tube by thin structures on the ends of the tubes known as fimbriae. At this time, the cervix produces an increased amount of thin mucus that assists sperm in the passage into the uterus. The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle begins at ovulation egg release. After the egg is released, the empty follicle turns into a cystic mass of cells called the corpus luteum.

The corpus luteum then produces progesterone , a hormone that readies the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg.

If an egg has been fertilized, the fertilized egg travels down one of the Fallopian tubes into the uterus and implants in the uterine lining tissue.

If fertilization of an egg has not occurred, the lining of the uterus eventually breaks down and is shed resulting in menstrual bleeding. Menopause is defined at the point in time at which a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months.

It signals the end of a woman's fertility and occurs, on average, at 51 years of age, though the time of menopause can vary widely. Learn about the signs and causes of infertility in women and men. Get facts on fertility drugs and infertility treatments. A midwife and doula are not the same thing. A doula's job is to provide non-medical, emotional, and personal support to a woman throughout her pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum experience.

A certified nurse midwife is a medical health care professional that manages the overall general health of the mother and baby; for example, performs exams, orders laboratory tests, and procedures, and performs fetal monitoring from the pregnant woman's first prenatal visit to post-partum and aftercare. A midwife can deliver the baby, whereas a doula cannot.

A midwife usually tries to minimize the use of unnecessary technological interventions. A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery. Midwives generally work with an Obstetrician a doctor that specializes in pregnancy, birth, and women's reproductive health when medical intervention by a specialist is necessary. A doula does not require a medical degree, but requires certification in some states.

Government of the District of Columbia. American College of Nurse-Midwives. Hot flashes or flushing is the most common symptom experienced by a woman prior to and during the early stages of menopause, and often is described as the feeling of warmth that spreads over the body, often starting at the head accompanied by sweating. Symptoms of hot flashes include:. Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests. Treatment options include hormone therapy, bioidentical hormone therapy, and medications.

There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as:. Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions. Scientific studies to prove the safety and effectiveness of these products in relieving hot flashes have not been adequately performed. Consult your health-care professional before taking any herbal supplement. There are numerous causes of pelvic pain in women and men. Causes of pelvic pain in women and men include:. Bleeding during pregnancy is never normal. Causes of bleeding during the first trimester of a pregnancy may be caused by implantation bleeding, ectopic or tubal pregnancy, subchorionic hemorrhaging, infections, and miscarriage.

Bleeding during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy can be caused by a variety of factors. Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples. A couple can chart their progress, which may ultimately lead to a successful healthy pregnancy, or, when necessary, lead to discussions with a fertility specialist. If you're a woman, be aware of your menstrual cycle, and you can track when you are fertile during the month using the:.

Both men and women can have fertility problems. Quick Guide Female Sexual Dysfunction: Treatment for Women's Sexual Disorders. Take the Infertility Quiz. Which Infertility Treatment is for You? Related Article Infertility Quiz: Test Your IQ of Infertility. Midwife A midwife and doula are not the same thing.

Flibanserin Addyi is a drug prescribed premenopausal women with acquired generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD and are experiencing low sexual desire, marked distress, or interpersonal difficulty.

Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication. Symptoms of hot flashes include: Flushing Excessive sweating Anxiety Palpitations Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests.

There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as: Black cohosh Licorice Evening primrose oil Wild yam Dong quai Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions. Boost fertility and increase your chances to conceive. Learn about ovulation calendars, diet, aging and other factors that can affect pregnancy. When male sperm fertilizes an egg produced by the ovaries, the rest of the female reproductive system works in harmony to protect and support the newly created embryo.

Problems involving the female reproductive system can occur in some women and should be discussed with a doctor to determine appropriate treatment. If the tissue that normally lines the uterus endometrium abnormally grows outside of the uterus, a woman can be diagnosed with a medical condition called endometriosis.

The endometrium may grow on the other organs of the female reproductive system and can also affect the bladder or bowel. Symptoms of endometriosis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, diarrhea, constipation or fatigue—especially during menstruation.

Additional symptoms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain during or after sexual intercourse, lower back pain or infertility. Though the cause of this condition is unknown, treatment typically involves analgesic medication, hormone treatment or surgery.

Abnormal, non-cancerous tumors that grow within the muscle cells of the uterus are called uterine fibroids. Approximately 20 percent of women under the age of 50 will develop fibroids, estimates the U. Problems caused by uterine fibroids can include heavy or painful menstrual bleeding, frequent urination, lower back pain, pain during sexual intercourse or reproductive problems, such as miscarriage or infertility. The most common forms of treatment for uterine fibroids include pain medication and surgery.

If your ovaries stop producing eggs before you are 40 years of age, you can be diagnosed with premature ovarian failure. Certain women with this condition may still experience irregular menstrual cycles, making this ovarian problem distinct from menopause. Symptoms of premature ovarian failure include mood alterations, hot flashes, difficulty concentrating, vaginal drying and decreased libido.

Though women with this condition can still become pregnant, it may be difficult to do. If you have premature ovarian failure, your doctor may recommend estrogen replacement therapy to help you have a regular menstrual cycle.

Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS occurs when your ovaries produce increased levels of a specific type of hormone androgens. Increased androgen hormone levels within the body can negatively affect the normal ovulation process and cause fluid-filled cysts to form on the ovaries.

PCOS prevents ovarian egg release during the menstrual cycle, which causes infertility in women with this condition.

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