Patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to drink green tea, black tea, or a soda five times a day for 5 days. Good Days also offers assistance with costs related to travel for healthcare appointments such as transportation, lodging, parking, fuel and meals. Research on Causes of Cancer. Research has also suggested that phytosterols may have anticarcinogenic properties, but the exact mechanisms are unknown. If the verification procedures identify situations in which an FI has falsified data, the FI is terminated.
President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment…[and] for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources. The National Weather Service NWS is tasked with providing "weather, hydrologic and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States , its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy.
They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts , advisories, watches, and warnings on a daily basis. They issue more than , weather and , river forecasts, and more than 45, severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is also relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio , a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements, watches and warnings 24 hours a day.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, and conserving marine and coastal places.
The National Ocean Service is composed of eight program offices: In NOAA's first polar-orbiting environmental satellite was launched. New generations of satellites are developed to succeed the current polar orbiting and geosynchronous satellites, the Joint Polar Satellite System and GOES-R , which is scheduled for launch in March The National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS , also known as NOAA Fisheries, was initiated in with a primary goal of the research, protection, management, and restoration of commercial and recreational fisheries and their habitat, and protected species.
NMFS operates twelve headquarters offices, five regional offices, six fisheries science centers, and more than 20 laboratories throughout the United States and U. NOAA research also develops innovative technologies and observing systems.
The NOAA Research network consists of seven internal research laboratories, extramural research at 30 Sea Grant university and research programs, six undersea research centers, a research grants program through the Climate Program Office, and 13 cooperative institutes with academia.
Through NOAA and its academic partners, thousands of scientists, engineers, technicians, and graduate students participate in furthering our knowledge of natural phenomena that affect the lives of us all. It studies processes and develops models relating to climate and air quality, including the transport, dispersion , transformation and removal of pollutants from the ambient atmosphere. The emphasis of the ARL's work is on data interpretation, technology development and transfer.
The specific goal of ARL research is to improve and eventually to institutionalize prediction of trends, dispersion of air pollutant plumes , air quality , atmospheric deposition, and related variables. AOML's research spans hurricanes, coastal ecosystems, oceans and human health, climate studies, global carbon systems, and ocean observations.
CIMAS enables AOML and university scientists to collaborate on research areas of mutual interest and facilitates the participation of students and visiting scientists. It has the largest research fleet of the Federal government. The National Integrated Drought Information System is a program within NOAA with an interagency mandate to coordinate and integrate drought research, building upon existing federal, tribal, state, and local partnerships in support of creating a national drought early warning information system.
Since , the organization has hosted the senior staff and recent chair, Susan Solomon , of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 's working group on climate science. The Coast and Geodetic Survey's flag, authorized in and in use until , was blue, with a white circle centered in it and a red triangle centered within the circle. It symbolized the use of triangulation in surveying , and was flown by ships of the Survey. NOAA ships in commission display the NOAA flag; those with only one mast fly it immediately beneath the ship's commissioning pennant or the personal flag of a civilian official or flag officer if one is aboard the ship, while multimasted vessels fly it at the masthead of the forwardmost mast.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An American scientific agency within the US Department of Commerce that focuses on the oceans and the atmosphere. This article has multiple issues. As part of the work registration process, the State agency must explain to the individual the pertinent work requirements, the rights and responsibilities of work-registered household members, and the consequences of failure to comply.
The State agency must provide a written statement of the above to each individual in the household who is registered for work.
A notice must also be provided when a previously exempt individual or new household member becomes subject to a work requirement, and at recertification. The State agency must permit the applicant to complete a record or form for each household member required to register for employment in accordance with paragraph a 1 i of this section. Household members are considered to have registered when an identifiable work registration form is submitted to the State agency or when the registration is otherwise annotated or recorded by the State agency.
Upon entry into each component, the State agency must inform the participant, either orally or in writing, of the requirements of the component, what will constitute noncompliance and the sanctions for noncompliance. If the individual complies before the end of the advance notice period, the State agency will cancel the adverse action. The methodology for State agency reimbursement for education components must be specifically addressed;. Costs in excess of the Federal grant will be allowed only with the prior approval of FNS and must be adequately documented to assure that they are necessary, reasonable and properly allocated;.
If the State agency universally work registers all SNAP applicants, this method must specify how the State agency excludes those exempt from work registration under paragraph b 1 of this section. If the State agency work registers nonexempt participants whenever a new application is submitted, this method must also specify how the State agency excludes those participants who may have already been registered within the past 12 months as specified under paragraph a 1 i of this section;.
FNS is specifically concerned that the lines of communication be efficient and that noncompliance be reported to the certification unit within 10 working days after the noncompliance occurs;. Copies of contracts must be available for inspection;. Include the length of the conciliation period; and.
If the State agency proposes to provide different reimbursement amounts to account for varying levels of expenses, for instance for greater or lesser costs of transportation in different areas of the State , it must include them here.
FNS must be afforded the opportunity to review and comment on the proposed reimbursements before they are implemented. Such measures may include:. C The percentage and number of participants who are in an education or training program that is intended to lead to a recognized credential, a registered apprenticeship an on-the-job training program , a regular secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent , or unsubsidized employment;.
The State agency must submit plan revisions to the appropriate FNS regional office for approval if it plans to alter the nature or location of its components or the number or characteristics of persons served. The proposed changes must be submitted for approval at least 30 days prior to planned implementation. The report will contain monthly figures for:. Each individual must be counted only once.
A Are voluntary vs. D Speak English as a second language;. F Are within each of the following age ranges: C The monthly average number of individuals who participate in such programs; and. D A description of the types of employment and training programs the State agency offered to at risk ABAWDs and the availability of those programs throughout the State.
The grant requires no State matching. In order to guarantee an equitable reduction, FNS will calculate grants as follows. The difference between the original and the revised amounts will represent each State agency 's contribution.
D If a State agency will not obligate or expend all of the funds allocated to it for a fiscal year under paragraph d 1 i B of this section, FNS will reallocate the unobligated, unexpended funds to other State agencies during the fiscal year or the subsequent fiscal year on a first come-first served basis.
Each year FNS will notify all State agencies of the availability of carryover funding. Interested State agencies must submit their requests for carryover funding to FNS.
If the requests are determined reasonable and necessary, FNS will allocate carryover funding to meet some or all of the State agencies' requests, as it considers appropriate and equitable. If an adequate plan is not submitted, FNS may reallocate a State agency 's grant among other State agencies with approved plans.
C Federal funds made available to a State agency to operate an educational component under paragraph e 1 vi of this section must not be used to supplant nonfederal funds for existing educational services and activities that promote the purposes of this component.
A A request to be considered as a pledge State , along with its commitment to comply with the requirements of paragraph d 3 i of this section;. B The estimated costs of complying with its pledge;. C A description of management controls it has established to meet the requirements of the pledge;. F Information about the education, training, and workfare components that it will offer to allow ABAWDs to remain eligible. FNS will determine the number of ABAWDs in each participating State using SNAP QC data for the most recently available completed fiscal year, which provide a breakdown of each State 's population of adults age 18 through 49 who are not disabled and who do not live with children.
C Each participating State agency must meet the fiscal recordkeeping and reporting requirements of paragraph d 7 of this section. FNS will notify other pledge States of the availability of additional funding. Interested pledge States must submit their requests for additional funding to FNS.
FNS will review the requests and, if they are determined reasonable and necessary, will reallocate some or all of the unobligated, unspent ABAWD funds. Unobligated funds from this grant must be returned to the U. Treasury at the end of each fiscal year. If a participating State agency fails, without good cause , to meet its commitment, it may be disqualified from participating in the subsequent fiscal year or years. The Federal government will fund 50 percent of State agency payments for allowable expenses, except that Federal matching for dependent care expenses is limited to the maximum amount specified in paragraph d 4 i of this section.
These payments may be provided as a reimbursement for expenses incurred or in advance as payment for anticipated expenses in the coming month. Reimbursable costs may include, but are not limited to, dependent care costs, transportation, and other work, training or education related expenses such as uniforms, personal safety items or other necessary equipment, and books or training manuals.
These costs must not include the cost of meals away from home. The State agency may reimburse participants for expenses beyond the amounts specified in paragraphs d 4 i of this section; however, only costs that are up to but not in excess of those amounts are subject to Federal cost sharing.
Also, the State agency will verify a court-imposed requirement for the supervision of a dependent age 13 or older if the need for dependent care is questionable. An individual who is the caretaker relative of a dependent in a family receiving cash assistance under title IV-A of the Social Security Act in a local area where an employment, training, or education program under title IV-A is in operation is not eligible for such reimbursement.
The State agency must verify the participant's need for dependent care and the cost of the dependent care prior to the issuance of the reimbursement. The verification must include the name and address of the dependent care provider, the cost and the hours of service e. In lieu of providing reimbursements for dependent care expenses, a State agency may arrange for dependent care through providers by the use of purchase of service contracts, by providing vouchers to the household or by other means.
A State agency may require that dependent care provided or arranged by the State agency meet all applicable standards of State and local law, including requirements designed to ensure basic health and safety protections e.
If a State agency has an approved method to provide allowances rather than reimbursements, it must provide participants an opportunity to claim actual expenses up to the maximum level of reimbursements established by the State agency. Enhanced cost-sharing due to placement of workfare participants in paid employment is available only for workfare programs funded under paragraph m 7 iv of this section at the 50 percent reimbursement level and reported as such.
The State agency must ensure that records are maintained that support the financial claims being made to FNS. Claims for enhanced funding for placements of participants in employment after their initial participation in the optional workfare program will be submitted in accordance with paragraph m 7 iv of this section. Requirements may vary among participants. Failure to comply without good cause with the requirements imposed by the State agency will result in disqualification as specified in paragraph f 2 of this section.
To be considered acceptable by FNS , any component offered by a State agency must entail a certain level of effort by the participants. The level of effort should be comparable to spending approximately 12 hours a month for two months making job contacts less in workfare or work experience components if the household's benefit divided by the minimum wage is less than this amount.
However, FNS may approve components that do not meet this guideline if it determines that such components will advance program goals. The State agency must not impose requirements that would delay the determination of an individual's eligibility for benefits or in issuing benefits to any household that is otherwise eligible.
The State agency may require an individual to participate in job search from the time an application is filed for an initial period established by the State agency. Following this initial period which may extend beyond the date when eligibility is determined the State agency may require an additional job search period in any period of 12 consecutive months. The first such period of 12 consecutive months will begin at any time following the close of the initial period.
The State agency may establish a job search period that, in its estimation, will provide participants a reasonable opportunity to find suitable employment. The State agency should not, however, establish a continuous, year-round job search requirement. If a reasonable period of job search does not result in employment, placing the individual in a training or education component to improve job skills will likely be more productive.
Such a program may consist of job skills assessments, job finding clubs, training in techniques for employability, job placement services, or other direct training or support activities, including educational programs determined by the State agency to expand the job search abilities or employability of those subject to the program. Job search training activities are approvable if they directly enhance the employability of the participants. A direct link between the job search training activities and job-readiness must be established for a component to be approved.
B In accordance with section 20 e of the Food and Nutrition Act of and paragraph m 6 ii of this section, the State agency may establish a job search period of up to 30 days following certification prior to making a workfare assignment. Such an employment or training experience must:. A Not provide any work that has the effect of replacing the employment of an individual not participating in the employment or training experience program ; and.
B Provide the same benefits and working conditions that are provided at the job site to employees performing comparable work for comparable hours. Allowable educational activities may include, but are not limited to, high school or equivalent educational programs , remedial education programs to achieve a basic literacy level, and instructional programs in English as a second language.
Only educational components that directly enhance the employability of the participants are allowable. A direct link between the education and job-readiness must be established for a component to be approved. Included are programs that provide instruction for self-employment ventures. The State agency may offer job retention services, such as case management, job coaching, dependent care assistance and transportation assistance, for up to 90 days to an individual who has secured employment.
The State agency may determine the start date for job retention services provided that the individual is participating in SNAP in the month of or the month prior to beginning job retention services. The State agency may provide job retention services to households leaving SNAP up to the day limit unless the individual is leaving SNAP due to a disqualification in accordance with An otherwise eligible individual who refuses or fails to accept or comply with job retention services offered by the State agency may not be disqualified as specified in paragraph f 2 of this section.
Each State agency must periodically reevaluate its individual and categorical exemptions to determine whether they remain valid. Each State agency will establish the frequency of its periodic evaluation. The State agency may also determine the number of successive components in which a participant may be placed. The notice must also specify that the individual may, if appropriate, reapply at the end of the disqualification period.
Information must be included on or with the notice describing the action that can be taken to avoid the disqualification before the disqualification period begins. The disqualification period must begin with the first month following the expiration of the day adverse notice period, unless a fair hearing is requested. Thus, a notice of adverse action must be sent whenever the State agency becomes aware of an individual's noncompliance with SNAP work requirements, even if the disqualification begins after the certification period expires and the household has not been recertified.
The following disqualification periods will be imposed:. A The date the individual complies, as determined by the State agency ;. C Up to three months, at State agency option. C Up to six months, at State agency option. C A date determined by the State agency ; or. D At the option of the State agency , permanently. These records must be available for inspection and audit at any reasonable time to ensure conformance with the minimum mandatory disqualification periods instituted.
The plan must include the length of disqualification to be enforced for each occurrence of noncompliance, how compliance is determined by the State agency , and the State agency 's household disqualification policy. A The duration of the ineligibility of the noncompliant individual under paragraph f 2 of this section; or.
A The head of the household leaves the household;. C The head of the household becomes exempt from work requirements during the disqualification period. Individuals or households may appeal State agency actions such as exemption status, the type of requirement imposed, or State agency refusal to make a finding of good cause if the individual or household believes that a finding of failure to comply has resulted from improper decisions on these matters.
The State agency or its designee operating the relevant component must receive sufficient advance notice to either permit the attendance of a representative or ensure that a representative will be available for questioning over the phone during the hearing.
A representative of the appropriate agency must be available through one of these means. Confidential information not released to a household may not be used by either party at the hearing. The results of the fair hearing are binding on the State agency.
An individual exempt from SNAP work requirements by paragraphs b 1 iii or b 1 v of this section because he or she is subject to work requirements under title IV-A or unemployment compensation who fails to comply with a title IV-A or unemployment compensation work requirement will be treated as though he or she failed to comply with SNAP work requirement.
However, if the noncomplying individual meets one of the work registration exemptions provided in paragraph b 1 of this section other than the exemptions provided in paragraphs b 1 iii or b 1 v of this section the individual or household if applicable under paragraph f 5 of this section will not be disqualified.
Except in cases of permanent disqualification, at the end of the applicable mandatory disqualification period for noncompliance with SNAP work requirements, participation may resume if the disqualified individual applies again and is determined by the State agency to be in compliance with work requirements. A disqualified individual may be permitted to resume participation during the disqualification period if otherwise eligible by becoming exempt from work requirements.
Employment will not be considered suitable if daily commuting time exceeds 2 hours per day, not including the transporting of a child to and from a child care facility. Nor will employment be considered suitable if the distance to the place of employment prohibits walking and neither public nor private transportation is available to transport the member to the jobsite.
Since it is not possible for the Department to enumerate each individual situation that should or should not be considered good cause , the State agency must take into account the facts and circumstances, including information submitted by the employer and by the household member involved, in determining whether or not good cause exists.
Good cause for leaving employment also includes:. There may be some circumstances where households will apply for SNAP benefits between jobs particularly in cases where work may not yet be available at the new job site. Even though employment at the new site has not actually begun, the quitting of the previous employment must be considered as with good cause if it is part of the pattern of that type of employment.
For the purpose of establishing that a voluntary quit without good cause or reduction in work effort without good cause occurred prior to applying for food stamps, a State agency may, at its option, choose a period between 30 and 60 days before application in which to determine voluntary quit or reduction in work effort. An individual is ineligible to participate in SNAP if, in a period established by the State agency between 30 and 60 day before applying for food stamp benefits or at any time thereafter, the individual:.
Changes in employment status that result from terminating a self-employment enterprise or resigning from a job at the demand of the employer will not be considered a voluntary quit for purposes of this paragraph j. Overview Information contains information about Key Dates and time. Applicants are encouraged to submit applications before the due date to ensure they have time to make any application corrections that might be necessary for successful submission.
When a submission date falls on a weekend or Federal holiday , the application deadline is automatically extended to the next business day. Organizations must submit applications to Grants. Applicants are responsible for viewing their application before the due date in the eRA Commons to ensure accurate and successful submission.
This initiative is not subject to intergovernmental review. Paper applications will not be accepted. Applicants must complete all required registrations before the application due date. Eligibility Information contains information about registration. For assistance with your electronic application or for more information on the electronic submission process, visit Applying Electronically. If you encounter a system issue beyond your control that threatens your ability to complete the submission process on-time, you must follow the Guidelines for Applicants Experiencing System Issues.
See more tips for avoiding common errors. Upon receipt, applications will be evaluated for completeness and compliance with application instructions by the Center for Scientific Review, NIH. Applications that are incomplete or non-compliant will not be reviewed. Applicants are required to follow the instructions for post-submission materials, as described in the policy -. Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process. As part of the NIH mission , all applications submitted to the NIH in support of biomedical and behavioral research are evaluated for scientific and technical merit through the NIH peer review system.
Reviewers will provide an overall impact score to reflect their assessment of the likelihood for the project to exert a sustained, powerful influence on the research field s involved, in consideration of the following review criteria and additional review criteria as applicable for the project proposed. Reviewers will consider each of the review criteria below in the determination of scientific merit, and give a separate score for each.
An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact. For example, a project that by its nature is not innovative may be essential to advance a field. Does the project address an important problem or a critical barrier to progress in the field?
Is there a strong scientific premise for the project? How will successful completion of the aims change the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services, or preventative interventions that drive this field?
Does the proposed project have commercial potential to lead to a marketable product, process or service? If Early Stage Investigators or those in the early stages of independent careers, do they have appropriate experience and training? If established, have they demonstrated an ongoing record of accomplishments that have advanced their field s?
Does the application challenge and seek to shift current research or clinical practice paradigms by utilizing novel theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions? Are the concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions novel to one field of research or novel in a broad sense? Is a refinement, improvement, or new application of theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions proposed? Are the overall strategy, methodology, and analyses well-reasoned and appropriate to accomplish the specific aims of the project?
Have the investigators presented strategies to ensure a robust and unbiased approach, as appropriate for the work proposed? Are potential problems, alternative strategies, and benchmarks for success presented? If the project is in the early stages of development, will the strategy establish feasibility and will particularly risky aspects be managed?
Does the Phase I application specify clear, appropriate, measurable goals milestones that should be achieved prior to initiating Phase II? Have the investigators presented adequate plans to address relevant biological variables, such as sex, for studies in vertebrate animals or human subjects?
Will the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Are the institutional support, equipment and other physical resources available to the investigators adequate for the project proposed?
Will the project benefit from unique features of the scientific environment, subject populations, or collaborative arrangement? As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will evaluate the following additional items while determining scientific and technical merit, and in providing an overall impact score, but will not give separate scores for these items.
For Phase II Applications, how well did the applicant demonstrate progress toward meeting the Phase I objectives, demonstrating feasibility, and providing a solid foundation for the proposed Phase II activity? For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate the justification for involvement of human subjects and the proposed protections from research risk relating to their participation according to the following five review criteria: For research that involves human subjects and meets the criteria for one or more of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate: For additional information on review of the Human Subjects section, please refer to the Guidelines for the Review of Human Subjects.
For additional information on review of the Inclusion section, please refer to the Guidelines for the Review of Inclusion in Clinical Research. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment according to the following criteria: Reviewers will assess the use of chimpanzees as they would any other application proposing the use of vertebrate animals. For additional information on review of the Vertebrate Animals section, please refer to the Worksheet for Review of the Vertebrate Animal Section.
For Resubmissions, the committee will evaluate the application as now presented, taking into consideration the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group and changes made to the project. For Phase IIB Applications, the committee will consider the progress made in the last funding period. For Revisions, the committee will consider the appropriateness of the proposed expansion of the scope of the project.
If the Revision application relates to a specific line of investigation presented in the original application that was not recommended for approval by the committee, then the committee will consider whether the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group are adequate and whether substantial changes are clearly evident. As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will consider each of the following items, but will not give scores for these items, and should not consider them in providing an overall impact score.