Moderation is the key. Ayurvedic medicine has a similar approach, where it frequently prescribes aromatic basmati rice as a major food staple to patients, as it is easy to digest. So is eating huge amounts of raw vegetables good for everyone? Anyway, I made a massive recovery, hardly needed more than 5 or 6 hours sleep a night, and felt full of energy. Retrieved 12 October Squid blood contains the copper-rich protein hemocyanin for transporting oxygen.
Because some stones are calcified, this treatment often doesn't work. Another nonsurgical technique, shock wave therapy, uses high-frequency sound waves to fragment the stones.
Bile salt is administered afterward to dissolve small pieces. This therapy is rarely used. Doctors can also attempt to remove gallstones during an ERCP. During the procedure an instrument is inserted through the endoscope to attempt removal of the stone.
While these therapies may work for some, all of the above nonsurgical therapies are usually unsuccessful long term since recurrence is common and are rarely advised in clinical practice. While the gallbladder serves an important function, it is not essential for a normal, healthy life. When gallstones are persistently troublesome, doctors often recommend removing the organ entirely.
This operation is considered among the safest of all surgical procedures. Each year approximately , Americans have their gallbladder removed. It is also the only treatment method that eliminates the possibility that other gallstones will develop in the future. When the gallbladder has been removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine, and this sometimes leads to diarrhea.
Because bile no longer accumulates in the gallbladder, quantities of the digestive fluid cannot be stored up and used to break down an especially fatty meal. This condition is not considered serious, however, and can be corrected by simply limiting fat in the diet. In the past, removal of the gallbladder was done through traditional "open" surgery, which requires surgeons to make a large incision in the abdomen. Patients faced a two- or three-day hospital stay plus several weeks of recovery at home.
Today, however, the most commonly used surgical technique is a much simpler approach known as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The doctor makes several small incisions in the abdomen, then uses special pencil-thin instruments to remove the gallbladder. A tiny microscope and video camera, snaked through the incision to the site, allow the surgeon to view the operation. Laparoscopic surgery is highly effective and very safe.
It has reduced the hospital stay to a day or two. Patients report less pain and are generally able to resume a normal lifestyle in a short period of time. However, people who are obese or who have a severe infection or inflammation in the gallbladder may still be considered candidates for traditional open surgery. Continued Nonsurgical Therapy for Gallstones If you are unable or unwilling to go through surgery for a gallstone problem that requires treatment, your doctor may recommend one of several noninvasive techniques.
Surgery to Remove the Gallbladder While the gallbladder serves an important function, it is not essential for a normal, healthy life. Argulus has a direct life cycle, meaning it only requires one host the fish to completely develop from an egg to a mature, reproducing adult.
All crustaceans, including Argulus , develop and grow through a complex series of molts i. Unlike copepods—another group of crustacean fish parasites, such as Lernaea the Anchorworm branchiurans continue to molt periodically even after reaching maturity.
Some chemical control methods see Diagnosis and Management kill the parasite by inhibiting the molting process. While the branchiuran life cycle averages 30 to 60 days, the actual duration depends on the parasite species and the water temperature. All life stages of both sexes are parasitic—unlike the non- parasitic male Anchorworm Lernaea , Argulus adults can survive for several days off the fish host.
After she releases her eggs, the female returns to the fish host. The time required for Argulus eggs to hatch will vary, depending upon the species and temperature. If laid in the fall, eggs are capable of over wintering surviving until the following spring. Disease in Fish Caused by Argulus: Argulus infestations tend to peak in the summer and fall.
The lice can be found attached to the skin, gill chamber, and mouth. Localized inflammation occurs at the contact site because of mechanical damage from hooks and spines on the stylet and appendages, and irritation from digestive enzymes.
In heavy infestations, the fish lice may be seen all over the skin and fins of the fish and in the water column Figures 3 and 4. Fish without visible lice may show non- specific signs of infestation. These include spot or pinpoint hemorrhages, anemia, fin and scale loss, increased mucus production, lethargy, erratic swimming, reduced feeding, hanging at the surface avoiding swimming into the water column and poor body condition.
In some cases, there may be no obvious signs of disease other than presence of the parasite. Individual adult and late stage juvenile Argulus are easily seen with the unaided eye.
Note readily visible oval parasites in throat ventral area of head, as well as others scattered throughout the body. Although fish may tolerate low and even moderate levels of Argulus with very few signs of disease, localized inflammation and damage at the affected site may lead to secondary infections.
Secondary pathogens, such as the bacteria Aeromonas and the water mold Saprolegnia , are often seen concurrently with Argulus infestations. Argulus is also capable of acting as a mechanical vector or intermediate host for several fish diseases. The parasite can carry and transmit spring viremia of carp, a reportable viral disease of Koi, common carp, and goldfish, among other hosts. Aeromonas salmonicida , an important bacterial pathogen, has been isolated from Argulus coregoni, and experiments demonstrated higher rates of Aeromonas infection when Argulus are present, but direct transmission from louse to fish has not yet been proven.
Argulus can also serve as the intermediate host for several species of nematodes roundworms. Because of their size, older stages of Argulus can be diagnosed with the naked eye. The parasites are visible moving on the host or swimming in the water.
The parasite can also be identified on a wet mount of the affected tissue. Captured fish should be examined quickly because Argulus may rapidly leave the fish once it is disturbed or removed from the water. Filtering water from the system through a fine mesh net may also help capture free- swimming Argulus adults or juveniles for identification. Adults and juvenile stages which are similar to adults but lack suckers are relatively easy to identify, but their identification should be verified by a fish health professional.
Drug choice and length of treatment for Argulus infections should take into consideration the life cycle of the parasite, which varies from 30 to 60 days depending on temperature and species. Treatment should target all life stages, including eggs, juveniles, and adults, both on the fish and in the environment. Adult parasites can be manually removed from the affected fish, but this is impractical in many situations and is an incomplete solution because eggs, unattached juveniles, and adults will still be present in the environment.
Fish can be moved to a clean tank and treated with the appropriate drugs, while eggs in the original system are eliminated either by cleaning and disinfecting the tank or allowing it to dry completely.
However, drying may be difficult in humid areas, and at cooler temperatures eggs can survive much longer time periods. Optimal water quality should be maintained for the duration of any treatments. It is best to work with a fish health specialist.