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Society Is Fixed, Biology Is Mutable
They additionally exhibit the quantity of protecting functions for individuals. The pediatricians in the review were gotten some information about herbs and Dietary Supplements. Calahan Young, a Slippery Rock University graduate with a degree in recreational therapy, has been named to the U. Space Time Energy Matter Change. Write off the rest of the development work as something which built your own background picture—the stage setting, if you like—whose presence in your mind will tend to save you from the more jarring inconsistencies I use this word, very carefully, rather than errors. If our assessments are too superficial and fact-centered, we may miss the distinction in the evidence we collect. A living thing grows.

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Biology with Lab

Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could then be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would further develop and perfect them. The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics. In the s and early s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units that had become known as genes.

A focus on new kinds of model organisms such as viruses and bacteria , along with the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in , marked the transition to the era of molecular genetics. From the s to present times, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain. Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in with the goal of mapping the general human genome.

This project was essentially completed in , [23] with further analysis still being published. The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a functional, molecular definition of the human body and the bodies of other organisms. Cell theory states that the cell is the fundamental unit of life , that all living things are composed of one or more cells, and that all cells arise from other cells through cell division.

In multicellular organisms , every cell in the organism's body derives ultimately from a single cell in a fertilized egg. The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. Finally, cells contain hereditary information DNA , which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.

Research into the origin of life, abiogenesis , amounts to an attempt to discover the origin of the first cells. A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution, and that all life-forms known have a common origin.

The theory of evolution postulates that all organisms on the Earth , both living and extinct, have descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool. This universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.

The term "evolution" was introduced into the scientific lexicon by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck in , [27] and fifty years later Charles Darwin posited a scientific model of natural selection as evolution's driving force.

Darwin theorized that species flourish or die when subjected to the processes of natural selection or selective breeding. The evolutionary history of the species —which describes the characteristics of the various species from which it descended—together with its genealogical relationship to every other species is known as its phylogeny.

Widely varied approaches to biology generate information about phylogeny. These include the comparisons of DNA sequences , a product of molecular biology more particularly genomics , and comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms, a product of paleontology. For a summary of major events in the evolution of life as currently understood by biologists, see evolutionary timeline. Evolution is relevant to the understanding of the natural history of life forms and to the understanding of the organization of current life forms.

But, those organizations can only be understood in the light of how they came to be by way of the process of evolution.

Consequently, evolution is central to all fields of biology. Genes are the primary units of inheritance in all organisms. A gene is a unit of heredity and corresponds to a region of DNA that influences the form or function of an organism in specific ways. All organisms, from bacteria to animals, share the same basic machinery that copies and translates DNA into proteins. The translation code from RNA codon to amino acid is the same for most organisms.

For example, a sequence of DNA that codes for insulin in humans also codes for insulin when inserted into other organisms, such as plants. DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes , and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes.

A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria , chloroplasts , or other locations is collectively known as a cell's genome.

In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is localized in the cell nucleus , or with small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments that are controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms.

All living organisms , whether unicellular or multicellular , exhibit homeostasis. To maintain dynamic equilibrium and effectively carry out certain functions, a system must detect and respond to perturbations. After the detection of a perturbation, a biological system normally responds through negative feedback that stabilize conditions by reducing or increasing the activity of an organ or system. One example is the release of glucagon when sugar levels are too low.

The survival of a living organism depends on the continuous input of energy. Chemical reactions that are responsible for its structure and function are tuned to extract energy from substances that act as its food and transform them to help form new cells and sustain them. In this process, molecules of chemical substances that constitute food play two roles; first, they contain energy that can be transformed and reused in that organism's biological, chemical reactions ; second, food can be transformed into new molecular structures biomolecules that are of use to that organism.

The organisms responsible for the introduction of energy into an ecosystem are known as producers or autotrophs. Nearly all such organisms originally draw their energy from the sun. Some of the energy thus captured produces biomass and energy that is available for growth and development of other life forms. The majority of the rest of this biomass and energy are lost as waste molecules and heat. The most important processes for converting the energy trapped in chemical substances into energy useful to sustain life are metabolism [44] and cellular respiration.

Molecular biology is the study of biology at the molecular level. Molecular biology is a study of the interactions of the various systems within a cell, including the interrelationships of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and how those interactions are regulated.

The next larger scale, cell biology , studies the structural and physiological properties of cells , including their internal behavior , interactions with other cells, and with their environment. This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for unicellular organisms such as bacteria , as well as the specialized cells of multicellular organisms such as humans.

Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology. Anatomy is a treatment of the macroscopic forms of such structures organs and organ systems. Genetics is the science of genes , heredity , and the variation of organisms. Genetics provides research tools used in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions.

Within organisms, genetic information is physically represented as chromosomes , within which it is represented by a particular sequence of amino acids in particular DNA molecules. Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop. Developmental biology, originated from embryology , studies the genetic control of cell growth , cellular differentiation , and "cellular morphogenesis ," which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues , organs , and anatomy.

Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans , [50] the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , [51] the zebrafish Danio rerio , [52] the mouse Mus musculus , [53] and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana.

Physiology is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms function as a whole. The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology , but some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied.

For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species.

Plant physiology borrows techniques from both research fields. Physiology is the study the interaction of how, for example, the nervous , immune , endocrine , respiratory , and circulatory systems, function and interact. The study of these systems is shared with such medically oriented disciplines as neurology and immunology. Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species , and their change over time.

It employs scientists from many taxonomically oriented disciplines, for example, those with special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy , ornithology , botany , or herpetology , but are of use in answering more general questions about evolution. Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology , which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution, [57] and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics.

Multiple speciation events create a tree structured system of relationships between species. The role of systematics is to study these relationships and thus the differences and similarities between species and groups of species. Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms: Monera ; Protista ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Animalia.

Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system: To prepare for careers in food products and processing systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

To prepare for careers in natural resource systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

Special emphasis is given to management as it relates to ecological requirements and how these practices impact the environment. To prepare for careers in environmental and natural resource systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to environmental and natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

Floral Design One Credit , Adopted This course satisfies the fine arts graduation requirement. Through the analysis of artistic floral styles and historical periods, students will develop respect for the traditions and contributions of diverse cultures. Students will respond to and analyze floral designs, thus contributing to the development of lifelong skills of making informed judgments and evaluations.

To prepare for careers in floral design, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to horticultural systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

To prepare for careers in horticultural systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to horticultural systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. Horticultural Science One Credit , Adopted To prepare for careers in horticultural systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to horticulture and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

Students should know how plant and soil science has influenced a vast body of knowledge, that there are still applications to be discovered, and that plant and soil science is the basis for many other fields of science. To prepare for careers in plant and soil science, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to plant and soil science and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;. Principles of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources.

To prepare for careers in agricultural power, structural, and technical systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge; acquire technical knowledge and skills related to power, structural, and technical agricultural systems and the industry; and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, industry certifications, and industry expectations.

Agricultural Mechanics and Metal Technologies. To prepare for careers in mechanized agriculture and technical systems, students must attain knowledge and skills related to agricultural structures design and fabrication.

To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their academic knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings.

To prepare for careers in mechanized agriculture and technical systems, students must attain knowledge and skills related to agricultural equipment design and fabrication. To prepare for success, students reinforce, apply, and transfer their academic knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings. Department of Transportation DOT. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course.

To prepare for careers in agricultural power, structural, and technical systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge; acquire technical knowledge and skills related to power, structural, and technical agricultural systems and the workplace; and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, industry certifications, and industry expectations.

To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12 as a corequisite course for students participating in a coherent sequence of career and technical education courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Career Cluster. This course provides an enhancement opportunity for students to develop the additional skills necessary to pursue industry certification.

This course must be taken concurrently with a corequisite course from the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Career Cluster and may not be taken as a stand-alone course. Districts are encouraged to offer this lab in a consecutive block with the corequisite course to allow students sufficient time to master the content of both courses. To prepare for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students must acquire knowledge and skills that meet entry requirements and industry expectations.

To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer academic knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings. The practicum course is a paid or unpaid capstone experience for students participating in a coherent sequence of career and technical education courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Career Cluster.

We eventually became colleagues and co-founded a non-profit organization intended to raise public awareness of new energy. In the spring of , I spent a few days with my former free energy partner and, like my astronaut colleague, he had also been run out of the USA after mounting an effort around high-MPG carburetor technology.

Every American president since Ronald Reagan knew my partner by name , but they proved to be rather low-ranking in the global power structure. My astro naut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the frontiers of science and nearly lost his life immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined.

A faction of the global elite demonstrated some of their exotic and sequestered technologies to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies. My astronaut colleague was involved with the same free energy inventor that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it also produced antigravity effects.

It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal. My former partner is the Indiana Jones of the free energy field, but I eventually realized that while it was awe-inspiring to witness his efforts, one man with a whip and fedora cannot save humanity from itself.

I eventually took a different path from both my partner and astronaut colleague, and one fruit of that direction is this essay. Not only was the public largely indifferent to what we were attempting, but those attracted to our efforts usually either came for the spectacle or were opportunists who betrayed us at the first opportunity. As w e weathered attacks from the local , state , national , and global power structures, such treacherous opportunities abounded. The antics of the global elites are of minor importance; the enemy is us.

Soon after I completed my present website in , one of R. This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training.

I am trying to help form a comprehensive awareness in a tiny fraction of the global population. Between 5, and 7, people is my goal. My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus.

Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles. That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood. Here is a brief sum mary of this essay.

Ever since life first appeared more than three billion years ago and about a billion years after the Sun and Earth formed, organisms have continually invented more effective methods to acquire, preserve, and use energy.

Complex life appeared after three billion years of evolution and, pound-for-pound, it used energy , times as fast as the Sun produced it. The story of life on Earth has been one of evolutionary events impacted by geophysical and geochemical processes , and in turn influencing them.

During the eon of complex life that began more than million years ago, there have been many brief golden ages of relative energy abundance for some fortunate species, soon followed by increased energy competition, a relatively stable struggle for energy, and then mass extinction events cleared biomes and set the stage for another golden age by organisms adapted to the new environments.

Those newly dominant organisms were often marginal or unremarkable members of their ecosystems before the mass extinction. That pattern has characterized the journey of complex life over the past several hundred million years.

Intelligence began increasing among some animals, which provided them with a competitive advantage. The oldest stone tools yet discovered are about 3. About two million years later, the human line evolved to the point where behaviorally modern humans appeared, left Africa , and conquered all inhabitable continents. After all the easy meat was extinct and the brief Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, population pressures led to the Third Epochal Event: That event led to civilization, and many features of the human journey often argued to be human nature, such as slavery and the subjugation of women , were merely artifacts of the energy regime and societal structure of agrarian civilizations.

Early civilizations were never stable; their energy practices were largely based on deforestation and agriculture, usually on the deforested soils , and such civilizations primarily collapsed due to their unsustainable energy production methods.

Europeans thereby began conquering the world. During that conquest, one imperial contender turned to fossil fuels after its woodlands were depleted by early industrialization. As E uropeans conquered Earth, elites, who first appeared with the first civilizations , could begin thinking in global terms for the first time, and a global power structure began developing. Toda y, industrialized humanity is almost wholly dependent on the energy provided by hydrocarbon fuels that were created by geological processes operating on the remains of organisms , and humanity is mining and burning those hydrocarbon deposits about a million times as fast as they were created.

We are reaching peak extraction rates but, more importantly, we have already discovered all of the easily acquired hydrocarbons. It is merely the latest instance of humanity's depleting its energy resources, in which the dregs were mined after the easily acquired energy was consumed. The megafauna extinctions created the energy crisis that led to domestication and civilization , and the energy crisis of early industrialization led to using hydrocarbon energy , and the energy crisis of attracted my fellow travelers and me to alternative energy.

However, far more often over the course of the human journey, depleting energy resources led to population collapses and even local extinctions of humans in remote locations. Expanding and collapsing populations have characterized rising and falling polities during the past several thousand years, ever since the first civilizations appeared.

Today, humanity stands on the brink of the abyss , and almost nobody seems to know or care. Humanity is a tunnel-visioned, egocentric species, and almost all people are only concerned about their immediate self-interest and are oblivious of what lies ahead. Not all humans are so blind, and biologists and climate scientists , among others intimately familiar with the impacts of global civilization, are terrified by what humanity is inflicting onto Earth.

Even th e ultra-elites who run Earth from the shadows readily see how their game of chicken with Earth may turn out. Their more extreme members advocate terraforming Mars as their ultimate survival enclave if their games of power and control make Earth uninhabitable. But the saner members, who may now be a majority of that global cabal , favor the dissemination of those sequestered technologies.

I am nearly certain that members of that disenchanted faction are those who gave my close friend an underground technology demonstration and who would quietly cheer our efforts when I worked with my former partner. They may also be subtly supporting my current efforts, of which this essay comprises a key component, but I have not heard from them and am not counting on them to save the day or help my efforts garner success. Humanity can then live, for the first time, in an epoch of true and sustainable abundance.

It could also halt the Sixth Mass Extinction and humanity could turn Earth into something resembling heaven. With t he Fifth Epochal Event, humanity will become a space-faring species, and a future will beckon that nobody on Earth today can truly imagine, just as nobody on Earth could predict how the previous Epochal Events transformed the human journey 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.

Also, each E pochal Event was initiated by a small group of people , perhaps even by one person for the earliest events , and even the Industrial Revolution and its attendant Scientific Revolution had few fathers. However, I came to realize that there is probably nobody else on Earth like my former partner , and even Indiana Jones cannot save the world by himself.

With the strategy that I finally developed, I do not look for heroes because I know that there are not enough currently walking Earth. I am attempting something far more modest. But after watching similar scenarios play out dozens of times, I finally had to admit the obvious , and my partner admitted it to me in I noticed several crippling weaknesses in all alternative energy efforts that I was involved with or witnessed.

Most importantly, when my partner mounted his efforts, people participated primarily to serve their self-interest. While the pursuit of mutual self-interest is the very definition of politics, self-interested people were easily defeated by organized suppression, although the efforts usually self-destructed before suppression efforts became intense.

Another deficiency in all mass free energy efforts was that most participants were scientifically illiterate and did not see much beyond the possibility of reducing their energy bills or becoming rich and famous. Once the effort was destroyed and they always are, if they have any promise , the participants left the alternative energy field.

Also, many lives were wrecked as each effort was defeated, so almost nobody was able or willing to try again. Every time that my partner rebuilt his efforts, it was primarily with new people; few individuals lasted for more than one attempt.

I reali ze that almost nobody on Earth today can pass the integrity tests that my fellow travelers were subjected to, and I do not ask that of anybody whom I will attempt to recruit into my upcoming effort. Those recruits will simply be singing a song of practical abundance that will attract those who have been listening for that song for their entire lives.

I am looking for singers, not soldiers, and the choir will primarily sing here. This effort could be called trying the enlightenment path to free energy, an abundance-based global political economy, and a healed humanity and planet. I believe that the key is approaching the issue as creators instead of victims, from a place of love instead of fear.

Those goals may seem grandiose to the uninitiated, and people in this field regularly succumb to a messiah complex and harbor other delusions of grandeur , but I also know that those aspirations are attainable if only a tiny fraction of humanity can help initiate that Fifth Epochal Event , just like the previous Epochal Events. This essay is designed to begin the training process. Learning this material will be a formidable undertaking.

This material is not designed for those looking for quick and easy answers, but is intended to help my readers attain the levels of understanding that I think are necessary for assisting with this epochal undertaking. In order to make this essay easier to understand, I created some tables and timelines, and they are:.

Energy and the Indu strialized World. Although Gates and other high-technology billionaires can live surprisingly egalitarian lifestyles , for one person to possess the same level of wealth as billions of people collectively is a recent phenomenon. In , about 30 thousand children died each day because of their impoverished conditions.

It took me many years to gain a comprehensive understanding of how energy literally runs the world and always has. A typical day in my life during the winter before I wrote this essay can serve as an example. When I worked hour days and longer during that winter, which was the busiest time of my year, I often fasted and needed less sleep, so I often awoke before 5: In as I write this, I live in a fairly large house. When I fast, my body generates less heat, so I feel cold rather easily; I wear thermal underwear under my work attire and have other strategies for staying warm, especially in the winter.

I programmed our furnace to begin operation soon before I awakened, so that my day started in a warm environment. I also have a space heater in my home office, so that the rest of the house can stay cold while I work in warmth. That winter, my first tasks when arising were turning on my computer and drinking a glass of orange juice, which raised my blood sugar. After some hours of reading about world events, answering emails, and working on my writings, I took a hot shower, dressed, and walked to a bus stop.

I read a book while awaiting the bus that took me to downtown Bellevue, where I worked in a high-rise office building for an Internet company. When I arrived at my office, I turned on my lights and computer. When I was eating, I put the food that I brought to work in a refrigerator under my desk. During my work day, I interacted with many people in my air-conditioned, high-technology office environment. My cellular telephone was never far away. The view from my office window of the Cascade Mountains was pleasant.

My computer interfaced with our distant data centers and the world at large via the Internet. When my workday was finished, I rode the bus home.

In the winter, the furnace is programmed to stop functioning when my wife and I leave for work, and comes on soon before we arrive home, so we never experienced a cold house. When I am not fasting, I usually eat dinner, with the food in my refrigerator usually purchased at a cooperative grocery store that has an enormous produce section, with food grown locally and imported from as far away as New Zealand, China, and Israel.

When I resumed my career in , I became an early riser and consequently went to bed by 9: During that day, around 80 times the calories that fueled my body were burned to support my activities. How did energy serve my daily activities? How did that disparity between the dying children and me come to be?

This essay will address those questions. Humanity is Earth's leading tool-using species, and our tools made us. Twigs, sticks, bones, and other organic materials were undoubtedly used as tools by our protohuman ancestors, but the only tools to survive for millions of years to be studied today are made of stone; the oldest discovered so far are about 3. The Industrial Revolution was accompanied by the Scientific Revolution , and the synergy between scientific and technological advances has been essential and impressive, even leaving aside the many technologies and related theories that have been developed and sequestered in the above-top-secret world.

The history of science is deeply entwined with the state of technology. Improving technology allowed for increasingly sophisticated experiments, and advances in science spurred technological innovation. While many scientific practices and outcomes have been evil, such as vivisection and nuclear weapons , many others have not been destructive to humans or other organisms.

The 20 th century saw great le aps in technological and scientific advancement. My grandfather lived in a sod hut as a child , his son helped send men to the moon , and his grandson pursued world-changing energy technologies and still does.

Relativity and quantum theory ended the era of classical physics and, with their increasingly sophisticated toolset, scientists began to investigate phenomena at galactic and subatomic scales.

Space-based telescopes , electron microscopes , mass spectrometers , atomic clocks , supercolliders , computers, robots that land on distant moons and planets, and other tools allowed for explorations and experiments that were not possible in earlier times.

There is more controversy with human remains and artifacts, but I am skeptical of popular works that argue for technologically advanced ancient civilizations and related notions. Mass spectr ometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were first invented in the 19 th century.

Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates are quite stable and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom. The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years.

The ability to weigh various isotopes, at increasing levels of precision, with mass spectrometers has provided a gold mine of data. Scientists are continually inventing new methods and ways to use them, new questions are asked and answered, and some examples of methods and findings follow.

Carbon has two primary stable isotopes: The energy of sunlight drives it, and that sunlight is primarily captured at the surface of water bodies and the oceans in particular. That air rises and cools, which reduces the water vapor that it can hold, so it falls as rain. That is why tropical rainforests are near the equator.

The rising equatorial air creates high-pressure dry air that pushes toward the poles, and at about 30 o latitude that air cools and sinks to the ground. As clouds pass over land, mountains force them upward and they lose their moisture in precipitation. Below is a diagram of those dynamics. A wa ter molecule containing oxygen the most common oxygen isotope will be lighter than a water molecule containing oxygen both are stable isotopes , so it takes less energy to evaporate an oxygen water molecule than an oxygen water molecule.

Also, after evaporation, oxygen water will tend to fall back to Earth more quickly than oxygen water will, because it is heavier. Also, the oxygen-isotope ratio in fossil shellfish as their life processes prefer the lighter oxygen isotope has been used to help determine ancient temperatures. Sed iments are usually laid down in annual layers, and in some places, such as the Cariaco Basin off of Venezuela's coast, undisturbed sediments have been retrieved and analyzed, which has helped determine when ice sheets advanced and retreated during the present ice age.

Mass s pectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including uranium-lead , potassium-argon , carbon , and many other tests. Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered.

The mo on rocks retrieved by Apollo astronauts are still being tested, as new experiments and hypotheses are devised. In , a study was published which resulted from testing moon rocks for the titanium and titanium ratios both are stable isotopes , and it has brought into question the hypothesis that the Moon was formed by a planetary collision more than four billion years ago.

In the Western Hemisphere, the Anasazi and Mayan civilization collapses of around a thousand years ago, or the Mississippian civilization collapse of years ago, have elicited a great deal of investigation.

It is now known that the Anasazi and Mayan culture collapses were influenced by epic droughts, but that was only the proximate cause. The ultimate cause was that those civilizations were not energetically sustainable, and the unsustainable Mississippian culture was in decline long before Europeans invaded North America.

The Anasazi used logs to build their dwellings that today are famous ruins. Scientists have used strontium ratios in the wood to determine where the logs came from, as well as dating the wood with tree-ring analysis and analyzing pack rat middens , and a sobering picture emerged.

Th e region was already arid, but agriculture and deforestation desertified the region around Chaco Canyon , which was the heart of Anasazi civilization. When Anasazi civilization collapsed, at Chaco Canyon they were hauling in timber from mountains more than 70 kilometers away the strontium ratios could trace each log from the particular mountain that it came from. When the epic droughts delivered their final blows, Anasazi civilization collapsed into a morass of starvation, warfare, and cannibalism, and the forest has yet to begin to recover, nearly a millennium later.

Another major advance happened in the late 20 th century: In , the first amino acid sequence for a gene was determined. In , the entire human genome was sequenced. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome was accomplished in , for orangutans in , and for gorillas in The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The genetic bases of many diseases have been identified.

Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from death row , due to DNA evidence's proving their innocence. Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16, to 13, years ago, humans repopulated Europe , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like.

Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were some migrations of Fertile Crescent agriculturalists into Europe , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements. In 2 , a study suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. The Neanderthal genome has been sequenced , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that they could recover dinosaur DNA , Jurassic-Park -style.

Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains have been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the s. Since , scientists have discovered planets in other star systems by using a variety of methods that reflect the improving toolset that scientists can use, especially space-based telescopes. Before those discoveries, there was controversy whether planets were rare phenomena, but scientists now admit that planets are typical members of star systems.

Extraterrestrial civilizations are probably visiting Earth , so planets hosting intelligent life may not be all that rare. Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny. The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past.

Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine. Thousands of years ago, the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus argued that the universe was comprised of atoms and the void, and Pythagoras taught that Earth orbited the Sun.

Hun dreds of years later, a Greek mathematician and engineer, Heron of Alexandria , described the first steam engine and windmill and is typically credited as the inventor, but the actual inventors are lost to history. Western science and technology did not significantly advance for the next millennium, however, until ancient Greek writings were reintroduced to the West via captured Islamic libraries.

The reintroduction of Greek teachings, and the pursuit of their energy technologies, ultimately led to the Industrial and Scientific revolutions. Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it developed from a method proposed by John Hershel , which Charles Darwin used to formulate his theory of evolution.

Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters. Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive also called abductive logic. The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution. If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process — often by predicting facts that later experiments verify — then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory.

The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry. The rele gation of hypotheses and theories to oblivion, without getting a fair hearing, as the pioneer dies in obscurity or is martyred , only to be vindicated many years later, has been a typical dynamic. The man who first explained the dynamics behind the aurora borealis , Kristian Birkeland, died in obscurity in , with his work attacked and dismissed.

Endosymbiotic theory , the widely accepted theory of how mitochondria , chloroplasts , and other organelles came to be, was first proposed in , quickly dismissed, and not revived until the late s. Doubt instead of faith is the guiding principle of science. Only hypotheses that have survived numerous attempts to falsify them graduate to becoming theories. Only scientists who can weather the attacks from their peers will survive long enough to see their hypotheses receive a fair hearing.

Wit h what I know has been suppressed by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview. Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.

When the Big Bang supposedly happened, there was no matter, but only energy. Only when the universe had sufficiently expanded and cooled, less than a second after the Big Bang, did matter begin to appear, which is considered to be comprised of relatively low energy states.

However, there will be limitations, and some of them follow. As Einstein and his colleagues readily admitted, the corpus of scientific fact and theory barely says anything at all about how the universe works. Sometimes, paradigms shift and scientists see the universe with fresh eyes. The ideals and realities of scientific practice are often at odds. Ironically, when scientists reach virtual unanimity on a theory, it can be a sign that the theory is about to radically change, and many if not most scientists will go to their graves believing the theory that they were originally taught , no matter how much evidence weighs against it.

A key tension in main stream science has long been the conflict between specialists and the generalists and multidisciplinarians. New hypotheses often come from generalists and their inductive reasoning, and the best of them usually have some flash of insight that leads them to their breakthroughs, which is called intuition or the Creative Moment.

I found that it is a close cousin to psychic ability, if not the same thing. Speciali sts are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice. Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist.

However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and R. Buckminster Fuller thought that the epidemic overspecialization and naïveté of mainstream scientists in his time was a ruling class tactic to keep scientists controlled and unable to see the forest for the trees.

Many paradigmatic breakthroughs in science and technology were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries. A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness.

There are also top-down and bottom-up ways to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both. Anot her key set of tensions are those between theorists, empiricists, and inventors.

Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories. Empiricists often produce that scientific data. Inventors create new technologies and techniques.

Albert Ein stein is the quintessential example of a theorist, who never performed experiments relating to his theories but accounted for experimental results and predicted them. Michelson and Morley , who performed the experiment that produced results that various scientists wrestled with for a generation before Einstein proposed his special theory of relativity , never suspected that their experiment would lead to the theories that it did. Einstein expected that his theories would eventually be falsified by experimental evidence, but that the best parts of his theories would survive in the new theories.

The Wright brothers w ere typical inventors. The theorists were spectacularly wrong, the empiricists had abandoned their primary principle of observation, and it was up to inventors to finally open their eyes and minds, years after the public witnessed the new technologies working.

Such inventions often threaten to upend the very foundations of scientific disciplines, which is primarily why they have been ignored as they have, if they are not actively suppressed. The fin dings of mainstream science can be particularly persuasive when lines of evidence from numerous disciplines independently converge, which has become increasingly common as scientific investigations have become more interdisciplinary.

DNA testing is clearly showing descent relationships and ghost ancestors are being reconstructed via genetic testing. Numerous dating methods are used today, and more are regularly invented.

Typically, a new technique will emerge from obscurity, often pioneered by a lonely scientist. For instance, dendrochronology , the reading of tree rings, was developed as a dating science by the dogged efforts of an astronomer who labored in obscurity for many years.

He was a fortunate pioneer; when he died after nearly 70 years of effort, he had lived to see dendrochronology become a widely accepted dating method.

Eventually, the new method can break past the inertia and active suppression, and sometimes even if the breakthrough threatens powerful interests. Then the newly accepted method can be seen as a panacea for all manner of seemingly insoluble problems, in the euphoric, bandwagon phase. The history of science is filled with fads that faded to oblivion, sometimes quickly, while advances that survived the withering attacks are eventually seen in a more mature light, in which its utility is acknowledged as well as its limitations.

DNA and molecular clock analyses have largely passed through those phases in recent years. In the s, the idea of room-temperature superconductors had its brief, frenzied day in the sun when high-temperature superconductors were discovered. Cold fusion had a similar trajectory, although the effect seems real and MIT manipulated their data to try to make the effect vanish.

After the bolide impact hypothesis broke through a taboo that lasted for more than a century, some scientists tried explaining all mass extinctions with bolide impacts.

In the dating sciences , the tests have all had their issues and refinements. The equipment has become more sophisticated, problems have been resolved, and precision has been enhanced. While there are continuing controversies, dating techniques have advanced just like many other processes over the history of science and technology.

In , dates determined for fossils and artifacts are generally only accepted with confidence when several different samples are independently tested and by different kinds of tests, if possible.

If thermoluminescence , carbon , and other tests produce similar dates, as well as stratigraphic evidence , paleomagnetic evidence , current measurements of hotspot migration rates across tectonic plates , along with genetic and other evidence introduced in the past generation, those converging lines of evidence have produced an increasingly robust picture of not only what happened, but when.

In the s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by catastrophists in particular. A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime.

Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is s till a Flat Earth Society , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling.

Quite o ften, the pioneers of science and technology receive no credit at all , not even posthumous vindication , as others steal their work and become rich and famous. But if private and governmental interests do not suppress the data and theory, as is regularly achieved regarding alternative energy and other disruptive technologies , usually the data will eventually win. But the data does not always win. Lead received a similar clean bill of health by industrially funded laboratories as the conflicts of interest were surreal, and the public was completely unaware of who was really managing such public health issues and why.

Similar situations exist today. Perhaps the most significant challenge to mainstream science is the fact that numerous advanced technologies already exist on Earth, including free energy and antigravity technologies, but they are actively kept from public awareness and use.

They and other exotic technologies developed in the above-top-secret world operate on principles that make the physics textbooks resemble cave drawings. Thou sands of scientists and inventors have independently pursued FE technologies, but all such efforts, if they had promise or garnered any success, have been suppressed by a clandestine and well-funded effort of global magnitude.

Although the gr eatest physicists were arguably mystical in their orientation , they rarely explored the nature of consciousness in the way that modern human potential efforts have. When I was 16 years old, it was demonstrated to me, very dramatically, that everybody inherently possesses psychic abilities , which falsifies today's materialistic theories of consciousness.

Millions of people had similar experiences during the last decades of the 20 th century when performing such exercises. Far too often, when scientists discuss materialism, they compare it to organized religion, particularly its fundamentalist strains, as if those are the only two alternatives, when they are on opposite ends of a spectrum in one way and two sides of the same coin in others.

Ironically, organized skepticism is largely comprised of anti-scientists who try to deny that such abilities of consciousness are even worthy of scientific investigation. That would be like asking a Wall Street executive in the s what his opinion of communism was. I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, UFOs , FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters or looked no further than 19 th -century investigations.

Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on highly unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality. They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have disinformed opinions. Not all main stream scientists relegate consciousness to a mere byproduct of chemistry.

The greatest physicists knew that materialism was a doctrine built on unprovable assumptions, which amounts to a faith. White scie nce still has almost nothing to say about the nature of consciousness. However, Black Science covert, largely privatized, and the same province where that advanced technology is sequestered is somewhat familiar with the nature of consciousness and considers it to be far more than a byproduct of chemistry.

The assumption that the entire universe is a manifestation of consciousness is not only unassailable by White Science, but is probably a foundational assumption of Black Science and mystics. The ba ttle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps.

Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today. As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we race toward our self-destruction.

White Science does not really know what energy is ; it can only describe its measurable effects.

Notes to the Book