This classification was initiated by Henry Fairfield Osborn and elaborated and made popular by Romer 's classic Vertebrate Paleontology. Modern species also have pineal glands in their brains. The skin of the aquatic turtles is more permeable for allowing them to respire while the cloaca is modified in various species to increase the gas exchange area. Is there less urates? In turtles, a hard shell made up of fused scutes covers the entire body. The use of the gizzard system has the potential advantages that intake rate is not limited by chewing, that no investment in dental tissue is necessary, and that dental wear is not a determinant of senescence as observed in mammals. Maltose is, technically, a double sugar , since it is composed of two molecules of the simple sugar glucose bonded together.
Bearded Dragon Diets and Food Items Explained
Using two thermometers, one on each end, will give a better indication of the thermal gradient of the enclosure warm to cool. Basking lamps Basking lamps can be mounted at the top, usually outside the wire top of the cage.
You don't want your pet to be able to touch the lamp as it can get burnt. The lamp provides a heat source through a full-spectrum bulb during the daytime and a red frosted bulb or a "blacklight" bulb for night. The light in these nighttime bulbs cannot be seen by your pet though you can still see it , so they think it's dark out.
Ceramic heating elements Ceramic heating elements do not provide light but produce a lot of heat. They screw into a fixture just like a light bulb but due to the extreme heat must only be used in a fixture with a ceramic socket.
This fixture can be mounted on top of terrarium in a manner similar to a basking lamp. Under tank heaters Under tank heat sources such as heating pads or tapes are a good choice for supplementing heat provided by a basking light or to provide heat at night. Hot rocks Hot rocks should generally be avoided as they can get quite warm or even have hot spots.
They don't help with heating the whole terrarium and can burn a reptile resting on one, causing injury and sometimes even death. With newer technology today, there are hot rocks available that have been developed to prevent the problems of over-heating and hot spots.
They have controlled heating elements for setting the desired temperature and thermal conductive resins that cover the stone for even heat distribution.
However, these thermal controlled hot rocks still provide heat only on the rock, so they don't solve the problem of adequately heating the whole terrarium, and as such are not suitable for large lizards or snakes. These specialty bulbs are available through pet stores that sell reptiles. Incandescent bulbs A full-spectrum incandescent bulb provides heat as well as light. These can be mounted as a basking lamp.
They are fine for many lizards, but for lizards that require natural sunlight, it is not adequate. These must have fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent bulbs A full-spectrum fluorescent bulb provides a sunlight replacement for those pets that need full-spectrum lighting. Not all require this, but those that do will be at risk if they don't get it.
These include many diurnal, or day-time active lizards and tortoises. Of course, natural sunlight is the best source of full-spectrum lighting. Flooring Covering There are a variety of floor coverings that can be used for your pet, but they all have their own considerations. One of the primary considerations in choosing floor coverings is cleanliness. Be wary of harmful micro-organisms. Reptile cage carpets Reptile cage carpets are often an ideal floor covering.
They are made for your pet, not for human floors, so they are not abrasive to your pets skin. They are also easy to remove and clean. Household carpets are not made for reptiles, they are chemically treated and are designed for abrasion. Reptile sand Sand is sometimes used, but it tends to cling to herptiles feet and to get into their food.
It can be very harmful if it is ingested. Gravel is a better choice, but should be washed and disinfected. There is a calcium sand available that is said to be digestible, however is should be used with caution as impaction problems have been said to occur with some herps. Other substrates Other options are shredded barks and packaged peat mosses, but be mindful of cleanliness.
Cage Decor Cage decor is very important for your pet. It provides their sense of security through shelters and camouflaging. It also includes maintenance things, like food and water dishes and heating devices. Some standard decor items are rocks, basking limbs and plants. Wash everything you put in. Sand or logs that you collect from outside needs to be cleaned and bleached or sterilized in a slow oven degrees to degrees for two to three hours. Wood limbs and rocks are very natural additions, but make sure they don't have any sharp parts that can injure your pet.
Limbs can be sealed with polyurethane varnish to prevent places for parasites to live. These can be used in dry land or aquatic terrariums. Aquarium plants, such as elodea anacharis , can do well in aquatic terrariums. Herptile Cage Care Cage maintenance is an important part of keeping reptiles and amphibians healthy, and long-lived.
With most herptiles being kept in a confined area as pets, they need to be protected from harmful micro-organisms and parasites. The reptile cage also needs daily and weekly maintenance. Things you will need to do for your herps home include:. Herptile Diet Types and Foods Whether you are keeping reptiles or amphibians, the diet varies with each animal.
Yet each herptile has primarily one of three types of diets. Some herps are carnivores - a meat or protein eater, others are herbivores - a plant eater or omnivores - which are animals that eat both plants and proteins. Carnivores Herptiles that are carnivores eat proteins such as rodents, insects and invertebrates.
Other proteins include guppies, goldfish, eggs, and some birds. Some even eat other herptiles, for example a snake will eat a frog and a large lizard will eat a small lizard. Some of the rodents herps will eat include mice, rats, pinkies and fuzzies terms for baby and juvenile mice and rats , rabbits and chickens. These proteins form the basis of many snakes and some lizards diets.
They can be fed live or purchased frozen and completely defrosted before feeding. Be cautious when feeding live adult rats. Snakes that do not feed immediately on an adult rat run the risk of being bitten by a loose rat, and can be severely damaged. Reptile foods for carnivores include: Crickets The most currently fed insects include crickets, which can be purchased in a variety of sizes to fit the herptile you are feeding.
Some will use their heads as sledgehammers and literally smash an opponent, some will rush or swim toward the threat from a distance, even chasing the opponent onto land or galloping after it. Many species also possess canine -like teeth. These are used primarily for seizing prey, but are also used in fighting and display. Geckos , skinks , and other lizards that are captured by the tail will shed part of the tail structure through a process called autotomy and thus be able to flee.
The detached tail will continue to wiggle, creating a deceptive sense of continued struggle and distracting the predator's attention from the fleeing prey animal.
The detached tails of leopard geckos can wiggle for up to 20 minutes. In the shingleback skink and some species of geckos, the tail is short and broad and resembles the head, so that the predators may attack it rather than the more vulnerable front part. Reptiles that are capable of shedding their tails can partially regenerate them over a period of weeks.
The new section will however contain cartilage rather than bone, and will never grow to the same length as the original tail. It is often also distinctly discolored compared to the rest of the body and may lack some of the external sculpting features seen in the original tail.
Dinosaurs have been widely depicted in culture since the English palaeontologist Richard Owen coined the name dinosaur in As soon as , the Crystal Palace Dinosaurs were on display to the public in south London. The depictions range from the realistic, as in the television documentaries of the s and first decade of the 21st century, or the fantastic, as in the monster movies of the s and s.
The snake or serpent has played a powerful symbolic role in different cultures. In Egyptian history , the Nile cobra adorned the crown of the pharaoh.
It was worshipped as one of the gods and was also used for sinister purposes: In Greek mythology snakes are associated with deadly antagonists, as a chthonic symbol, roughly translated as earthbound. The nine-headed Lernaean Hydra that Hercules defeated and the three Gorgon sisters are children of Gaia , the earth.
Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who Perseus defeated. Medusa is described as a hideous mortal, with snakes instead of hair and the power to turn men to stone with her gaze. After killing her, Perseus gave her head to Athena who fixed it to her shield called the Aegis. The Titans are depicted in art with their legs replaced by bodies of snakes for the same reason: They are children of Gaia, so they are bound to the earth.
The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva , while Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a seven-headed snake or within the coils of a serpent. There are temples in India solely for cobras sometimes called Nagraj King of Snakes , and it is believed that snakes are symbols of fertility. In the annual Hindu festival of Nag Panchami , snakes are venerated and prayed to.
The turtle has a prominent position as a symbol of steadfastness and tranquility in religion, mythology, and folklore from around the world. Deaths from snakebites are uncommon in many parts of the world, but are still counted in tens of thousands per year in India.
To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of different species of snake is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the horse is immunized.
Blood is then extracted; the serum is separated, purified and freeze-dried. Geckos have also been used as medicine, especially in China. Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, and are farmed commercially.
Their hides are tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags ; crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy. Farming has resulted in an increase in the saltwater crocodile population in Australia , as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve their habitat. Crocodile leather is made into wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. Crocodile oil has been used for various purposes. In the Western world, some snakes especially docile species such as the ball python and corn snake are kept as pets.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 August For other uses, see Reptile disambiguation. List of reptiles and List of snakes. Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Evolution of the Vertebrates 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Journal of Experimental Biology. Laurin, Michel and Gauthier, Jacques A.: Lizards Windows to the Evolution of Diversity.
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The Structure and Classification of the Mammalia. Hunterian lectures, presented in Medical Times and Gazette, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B.
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These two soft-bodied feeder worms are visually quite similar, but the butterworm is actually considerably larger they can reach sizes of 1. Also, waxworms are much more common in the lizard food arena. These worms make excellent feeder foods for Bearded dragons, although not as a staple because they are a bit higher in fat. This means they're good for fattening up thinner lizards. Fortunately, they are also high in calcium. When you purchase either species of worm, they usually come in a small plastic container filled with bran, which is used to minimize humidity not as food , as these worms are both very sensitive to wet air.
One advantage as a Bearded dragon food item is that both worms are in a stage of life where they will not eat at all. Don't even try to feed them, because a piece of apple alone can raise the humidity to lethal levels. This also means, the longer you wait to feed them to your Bearded dragon, the thinner the worms will get, as they are solely living off fat reserves.
Keep feeder waxworms at room temperature and they should last for a little over a month. Remove the ones that turn black. Keep your feeder butterworms in a warmer section of your refrigerator and they should last several months. Unless you're really into these worms, breeding them is not worth the hassle it requires.
Cost-wise, they're a little less expensive than crickets. Bearded dragons eat waxworms and butterworms eagerly, but the worms should not make up a substantial percentage of the lizard's diet due to their higher fat content.
Instead, include the worms as part of a varied diet. Backwater Reptiles Since we've spent some time talking about Bearded dragon diets and overall food requirements, it makes sense to briefly mention the lizards themselves.
If you're looking to purchase a Bearded dragon baby, juvenile, or adult, buy from an established company with a history of top notch customer satisfaction. If you're ready to try your hand at keeping one or more of these amazing reptiles, or if you're considering adding to to your existing colony, I personally recommend Backwater Reptiles. They have a huge selection of live reptiles for sale online, including hatchling and adult Bearded dragons, with a live arrival guarantee.
They also have a great article on how to tame a lizard. You can read more about Backwater Reptiles here. Bearded Dragon Foods to Avoid Never feed your Bearded dragon partial meat pieces, such as beef hearts, gizzards, turkey, chicken, or livers. Many reptile hobbyists mistakenly think this is a good way to feed lizards inexpensively.
While it may not cost much, there is very little nutritional value using this method, and it can quickly lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Always focus on feeding your lizard whole food items such as insects and mice, instead of adhering to a piecemeal approach. Never feed your Bearded dragon fish. Fish deplete niacin levels within a lizard's body, and can also carry heavy parasite loads.
A few feeder fish here and there usually don't cause much damage, but why risk it? Never feed Bearded dragons insects collected from the wild. These insects can contain trace pesticides that can, believe it or not, kill your lizard. Never feed Bearded dragons lizards such as anoles or geckos. While dragons will gladly devour them I've seen it happen , it's just not a good idea due to the internal parasite loads of wild caught feeder lizards.
Beardies are captive bred, so there's no sense in contaminating them with a potentially dangerous meal. Never feed your Bearded dragon iceberg lettuce.
It's got just about zero nutritional value. Never feed your Bearded dragon a live juvenile or adult mouse. This is because mice will often times fight back via furious biting. They can cause some serious injuries to lizards, so only use frozen mice as food. Pinkie mice are fine to feed live as they do not have teeth or claws. How Often to Feed a Bearded Dragon Feeding frequency is one of those reptile subjects that doesn't get discussed very often, mainly because everyone thinks they know the answer.
I can't tell you how often I've read lizard hobbyists who say, "Feed your lizard ten crickets every three days" or something similar, as if all lizards can be pigeonholed into some all-encompassing feeding formula.
Other well-meaning reptile keepers rely on their gut instincts, such as, "My juvenile Bearded dragon couldn't possibly eat more than six adult crickets — I mean, look how little it is.
Would you like to know the answer to this lizard feeding conundrum? Feed your Bearded dragon as much food as it will eat , especially when they are young. Also, feed them every single day. Twice a day would be even better. It's really that simple. When they stop chasing prey or eating vegetables , they are full.
This indicator determines when you can stop feeding them. They aren't going to eat until their stomachs burst. Giving your lizard enough food allows it to achieve maximum size and health. If you don't feed your Bearded dragon enough food, its natural growth curve will in effect be stunted. This can lead to severe problems. Also, feeding your Bearded dragon a minimal diet will cause it to bask less and lessen activity levels.
This is because heat basking increases its metabolism uses more energy , but since the lizard doesn't know when its next meal will come, it conserves calories by utilizing less energy. It's called survival instinct. There are some instances of adult dragons becoming somewhat obese, as their metabolisms slow, but it's quite rare. Recommended Bearded Dragon Book While this website offers in depth insight into what are the best Bearded dragon foods, it's a good idea to round out your knowledge of these lizards by learning about their caging and other captive requirements.
There have been a plethora of books written about Bearded dragons over the years, and if you want to know the truth, most all of them are severely outdated. I always prefer reading reptile books written by reptile enthusiasts who have experienced great success, not only at successfully keeping and rearing the reptile in question, but also at breeding the species.
For example, it's not all that difficult to raise a Bearded dragon to adult size. If you do, does that make you an expert on Pogona vitticeps? No, of course not. Now, if you've raised hundreds of them, and have successfully bred them many, many times, you definitely know what you're doing. The authors, Philippe de Vosjoli and Robert Mailloux, combined their extensive Bearded dragon knowledge to compile this book, and you will not find a better one out there:.
Bearded Dragon Feeding Tip Over the years, I've learned some helpful tips on feeding these majestic lizards.
The below tip is the single most helpful item in my entire reptile toolbax. It literally made my life easier overnight. If you never buy another lizard product again, buy this stuff. First, let me give you a little background. Crickets and roaches are great Bearded dragon foods, but many hobbyists collectively lose hundreds of thousands of these feeder insects each year due to simply drowning in water dishes.
Fortunately, this is totally preventable. And no, not with one of those gimmicky plastic trinkets that pet stores sell they supposedly allow crickets to climb out of the water dish. The answer lies within one of the greatest inventions for reptile hobbyists ever. Sounds like something out of a sci-fi movie, right? Well, they're so awesome that sometimes I wonder if they are from the future, sent back by a considerate reptile enthusiast.
The inert polymer crystals look like clear grains of sand, but a bit larger. You scoop out a teaspoon of these crystals, and pour them into a regular glass or plastic jar. Then, you add about a cup of water. In a matter of minutes, they absorb times their weight in water. Here's why they are so special. Now you just drop several of the water cubes into a dish for your crickets or roaches, and they'll get all their water needs met, without the risk of drowning.
It's like a clear gelatin, without the mess.