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This result pointed to the ability of the body to store creatine, which in turn suggested its use as a dietary supplement. Creatine, which is synthesized in the liver and kidneys , is transported through the blood and taken up by tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and skeletal muscle, through an active transport system. Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease. Use of creatine by healthy adults in normal dosages does not harm kidneys; its effects on the kidney in elderly people and adolescents were not well understood as of Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 8th ed.
Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3—6 hours throughout the day. As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. The rest is eliminated as waste. Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle fibers , which increases the potential for growth of those fibers.
This increase in myonuclei probably stems from creatine's ability to increase levels of the myogenic transcription factor MRF4. Creatine supplements are marketed in ethyl ester , gluconate , monohydrate , and nitrate forms. The most prevalent of these contaminants was creatinine , a breakdown product of creatine also produced by the body.
Heavy metals contamination was not found to be a concern, with only minor levels of mercury being detectable. Two studies reviewed in found no impurities. In , Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle. The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates.
While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the Olympics in Barcelona. An August 7, article in The Times reported that Linford Christie , the gold medal winner at meters, had used creatine before the Olympics. An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell , who was the gold medalist in the meter hurdles, as another creatine user.
In addition, The Times also noted that meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics. At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences EAS introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.
It is ineffective as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A meta-analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance. Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease.
As of , the evidence did not provide a reliable foundation for treatment decisions, due to risk of bias, small sample sizes, and the short duration of trials. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with creatinine. N -Carbamimidoyl- N -methylglycine; Methylguanidoacetic acid. Interactive image Interactive image. Std molar entropy S o Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman, eds.
Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health. Metabolism and Possible Interactions". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. The process of creatine synthesis occurs in two steps, catalyzed by L-arginine: The apparent dissociation constants of creatine and creatinine" PDF. Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Salomons, Markus Wyss, eds. Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Synthesis predominately occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the pancreas. Creatine synthesized in liver must be secreted into the bloodstream by an unknown mechanism Da Silva et al. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Retrieved 23 August National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 August Creatine is a chemical that is normally found in the body, mostly in muscles but also in the brain. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.
Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 3 November A systematic review with meta-analyses". Journal of Athletic Training. British Journal of Sports Medicine. The hepatitis A virus also typically causes jaundice.
It is spread by fecal-oral contamination, a result of poor bathroom hygiene or food contamination. The virus is shed in the stool of infected persons.
Hepatitis A is a self-limiting disorder; you may need only rest and plenty of fluids to get over it. Infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses may cause chronic illness and damage to the liver that occurs over time. The Illinois Department of Public Health reports that hepatitis C is spread by blood, putting health care workers, IV drug users and those who received blood transfusions prior to at highest risk.
Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines. A healthy liver aids the digestion of fats and proteins, regulates sex hormones, breaks down toxins in the bloodstream and removes excess red blood cells.
Chronic alcohol abuse taxes the liver, causing accumulation of fatty deposits, which become inflamed, leading to alcoholic hepatitis. The American Liver Foundation states that 35 percent of heavy drinkers develop this condition.
If drinking continues, healthy liver tissue is gradually replaced by non-functioning scar tissue, a process known as cirrhosis. Abdominal swelling and tenderness, loss of appetite and nausea may characterize alcoholic liver disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
The disorder generally follows the same course as alcoholic liver disease, however patients may be non-drinkers. The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse advises that many people with NASH do not have symptoms of fatigue and upset stomach until liver damage is advanced.
Losing weight, eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help you manage NASH. Regular medical care is also needed to control the effects of this disease. The entire family of cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins can damage your liver.