Conditions Related to Dysautonomia
Hi Craig - thanks for taking the time to comment. Does anyone know of some strategies for dealing with sweating from the crotch? I have water running down my back. The foods are very similar to those mentioned here. The castle you come home to should always remain as chemical free as possible and the food you put in your temple should be a wholesome as possible, if you want to maintain long-term health.
What is the vagus nerve and why should I care?
Antipsychotics are associated with a range of side effects. Approximately two-thirds of patients will discontinue use due in part to adverse effects. Side effects may include acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, tachycardia, hypotension, impotence, lethargy, seizures, intense dreams or nightmares, and hyperprolactinaemia. Side effects from antipsychotics can be managed by a number of different drugs. For example, anticholinergics are often used to alleviate the motor side effects of antipsychotics.
Some of the side effects will appear after the drug has been used only for a long time. When discontinuing therapy, patients must be tapered off of these drugs. Clozapine is of particular concern because it can cause agranulocytosis, CNS depression, leukopenia, neutropenia, seizure disorder, bone marrow suppression, dementia, hypotension, myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension with or without syncope and seizures.
With these severe side effects in mind, each of the manufacturers of clozapine are required to enroll patients taking their medication into a national registry where they will monitor a patient's white blood cell count WBC and their absolute neutrophil count ANC.
If the numbers fall below a particular level their therapy may need to be halted and the national registry has a responsibility to report the information to the nonrechallengeable database, that way if a physician goes to place the patient on the medication again the various manufacturers will know they are not allowed as they always need to check new orders for a patient against the nonrechallengeable database.
Once listed in the nonrechallengeable database they may never use clozapine again. KLOE za peen ] - tablet, orally disintegrating tablet Haldol generic name: Hypnotics are primarily used to induce and maintain sleep, usually to treat insomnia. There are three major categories of hypnotics: Other medications and substances that cause CNS depression such as alcohol should be avoided. Benzodiazepines are commonly used as anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, and skeletal muscle relaxants.
Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, as hypnotics, and as anticonvulsants.
Barbiturates also have analgesic effects; however, these effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics. Barbiturates, while strictly considered hypnotics, have been largely replaced by the newer nonbarbiturates for treating insomnia since barbiturates are known to cause a 'hangover' effect.
An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder. Antidepressants carry a black box warning that in short-term studies, antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults.
The tricyclic antidepressants are used primarily in the clinical treatment of mood disorders such as major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and treatment-resistant variants. DOX e pin ] - capsule, tablet, oral concentrate.
While these drugs can be used for a very broad range of things, you will typically see them used for treating moderate to major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorders, social anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and prevention of migraine.
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRIs prevent the uptake of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine and are a less potent inhibitor of dopamine reuptake.
The increase in these chemicals is believed to be related to their use in treating depression and anxiety. Duloxetine is also commonly used to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia.
VEN la fax een ] - tablet, extended-release tablet, extended-release capsule. The medications in this category have varied mechanisms of action, but all function as antidepressants. Bupropion is also used for seasonal affective disorder, and smoking cessation. Mirtazapine is also used for post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. Trazodone is used for a number of things, including aggressive behavior, alcohol withdrawal, insomnia, and prevention of migraine.
Wellbutrin, Zyban generic name: TRAZ a done ] - tablet, extended-release tablet. While many anxiolytic agents are related to benzodiazepines, one popular alternative is buspirone. It has a high affinity for 5HT1 receptors and a moderate affinity for dopamine D2 receptors.
Buspirone is considered to have very little abuse potential; so unlike benzodiazepines, it is not a controlled substance. Varenicline is used as a smoking cessation aid without actually using any form of nicotine. There is a heightened caution with this drug about suicidal ideation suicidal thoughts. Also, many patients using this medication report abnormal dreams.
Amphetamines are commonly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy. Side effects may consist of severe weight loss; also, dependence may develop during use of this drug. Amphetamines have the potential to raise the heart rate to dangerous levels. Adderall, Adderall XR generic name: Atomoxetine is used to treat ADHD.
It functions as a selective inhibitor of presynaptic norepinephrine transport. Unlike amphetamines used to treat ADHD, atomoxetine is considered to have little or no abuse potential. AT oh mox e teen ] - capsule. Phentermine is indicated as a short-term a few weeks adjunct therapy for weight reduction based on increased exercise, behavior modification, and calorie reduction.
Adipex P generic name: Modafinil may increase dopamine in the brain by decreasing dopamine reuptake. Lithium is one of the oldest medications on the market for treating mania and is still quite popular. Lithium is also sometimes used to treat Huntington's disease, neutropenia due to chemotherapy, or AIDS , cluster headache, PMS, bulimia, alcoholism, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion SIADH , tardive dyskinesia, hyperthyroidism, and psychosis postpartum or steroid-induced.
Many of the antiepileptic drugs discussed later in this article are also often used as mood-stabilizing drugs. Eskalith, Lithobid generic name: At normal levels, glutamate aids in memory and learning, but if levels are too high, glutamate appears to overstimulate nerve cells, killing them through excitotoxicity.
Memantine has been associated with a moderate decrease in clinical deterioration with only a small positive effect on cognition, mood, behavior, and the ability to perform daily activities in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease.
There does not appear to be any benefit in mild disease. Antiepileptic drugs AEDs will also sometimes be referred to as anticonvulsants. All of the drugs in this category can be used for treating various types of seizures. Many of these medications have additional uses such as treating trigeminal neuralgia carbamazepine , bipolar disorder carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproic acid , postherpetic neuralgia gabapentin, pregabalin , muscle cramps gabapentin , anxiety gabapentin , diabetic neuropathy gabapentin, pregabalin , fibromyalgia pregabalin , neuropathic pain with spinal cord injury pregabalin , migraine prophylaxis topiramate, valproic acid , cluster-headache prophylaxis topiramate , and alcoholism topiramate.
Tegretol, Equetro generic name: LEE ve tye RA se tam ] - tablet, extended-release tablet, oral solution, injectable solution Trileptal generic name: This disease presents a number of motor and nonmotor symptoms related to the loss of dopamine receptors.
Typically, the first motor symptom is a resting tremor in an upper extremity. Over time, additional motor symptoms occur including bradykinesia, rigidity, and gait difficulty. The first affected arm may not swing fully when walking, and the foot on the same side may scrape the floor.
As the disease progresses, posture becomes increasingly flexed and strides become shorter causing a shuffling motion from the patient.
Nonmotor symptoms usually begin with the loss of smell, and is followed by rapid eye movements and behavior disorders. Dopamine agonists pramipexole, ropinirole are also useful in decreasing the symptoms. Dopamine agonists pramipexole, ropinirole are also useful in the treatment of restless leg syndrome. Sinemet, Sinemet CR, Parcopa generic name: An analgesic is simply a medication that provides relief from pain whether through the reduction of inflammation or through a dissociative effect where the patient no longer notices the pain.
The word analgesic is derived from Greek where an- is a prefix meaning without , algesia or algos simply means pain , and -ic is a suffix that means pertaining to. Placing the whole word together means pertaining to without pain. Opioid analgesics are often used to treat acute pain such as postoperative pain , and for palliative care to alleviate the severe chronic, disabling pain of terminal conditions such as cancer, and sometimes for degenerative conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.
There has been an increased use of opioids in the management of nonmalignant chronic pain. Opioids also have antitussive and antidiarrheal effects; therefore, low doses and or weaker forms of these medications will sometimes be used for those purposes as well. These medications do have a potential for abuse due to their addictive nature. Most of these medications are considered controlled substances and their federal schedules are listed beside them.
FEN ta nil ] CII - transdermal patch, injectable solution, sublingual tablet, buccal tablet, buccal film, sublingual solution, lollipop, troche Vicodin, Lorcet generic name: MOR feen ] CII - tablet, extended-release capsule, controlled-release tablet, oral solution, injectable solution, suppository OxyContin, Roxicodone generic name: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are a class of drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
NSAIDs are usually indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, dysmenorrhoea, headache and migraine, postoperative inflammation, muscle stiffness, and fever.
Some medications do not easily fit into other categories, such as acetaminophen, aspirin and some of the combination analgesics that contain weak barbiturates.
Acetaminophen, sometimes listed as APAP, is a potent analgesic and antipyretic activity with weak anti-inflammatory activity. While aspirin could technically be classified as a NSAID, it is more often classified as a salicylate.
One thing that surprises many about the combination of butalbital, acetaminophen, and caffeine is that it is not federally scheduled even though the combination of butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine is considered a controlled substance.
Joseph Adult Chewable Aspirin generic name: AS pir in ] ASA - tablet, delayed-release tablet, effervescent tablet, chewable tablet, suppository Fioricet generic name: Serotonin 5-HT receptor agonists cause vasoconstriction in cranial arteries to relieve migraines and cluster headaches.
The word cardiac is derived from the Greek word kardia which simply means heart. The cardiac system is the entire system supporting the heart including the cardiac muscle, its conduction system, and the nerve supply along with the rest of the circulatory system such as arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
Many other organs also interact very directly with the cardiac system such as the lungs and kidneys. The medications affecting the cardiac system work by either exciting or inhibiting various functions either in this system or through other organs that interact with the cardiac system. Besides the medication categories listed in this section cardiac glycosides, diuretics, antiarrhythmics, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, renin-inhibitors, anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications, and various antihyperlipidemic drugs some of the categories previously discussed have significant effects on the cardiac system particularly the various medications that affected the sympathetic nervous system.
Cardiac glycosides are drugs used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Any medications in this category work by increasing the forcing of contraction of the heart, providing an overall increase in cardiac output. A diuretic elevates the rate of urination which removes fluid from the body and has a net result of decreased blood pressure. There are various mechanisms of action for these diuretics. Loop diuretics, such as bumetanide and furosemide, inhibit the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the ascending loop of Henle within the kidneys' nephrons.
By decreasing this reabsorption, an increased amount of fluid is excreted. Thiazide diuretics, such as chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide often abbreviated HCTZ , inhibit sodium reabsorption in distal renal tubules resulting in increased excretion of sodium and water. Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics also cause patients to lose a lot of potassium. Potassium sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone and triamterene, have an effect on renal distal tubules to inhibit sodium reabsorption causing the excretion of sodium and water but allows for the retention of potassium.
Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart cardiac arrhythmias , such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
A mi OH da rone ] - tablet, injectable solution Multaq generic name: Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension high blood pressure , diabetic nephropathy kidney damage due to diabetes , and congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors ACE inhibitors causes dilation of blood vessels which results in lower blood pressure.
In treating heart disease, ACE inhibitors are usually used with other medications. A typical treatment plan will often include an ACE inhibitor, beta blocker, a long acting nitrate, and a calcium channel blocker in combinations that are adjusted to the individual patient's needs.
KAP toe pril ] - tablet Vasotec generic name: KWIN a pril ] - tablet Altace generic name: RAM i pril ] - capsule. These drugs are used to treat hypertension. Calcium channel blockers work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into myocardial and vascular tissues thereby preventing contractions and causing the dilation of the main coronary and systemic arteries.
Patients should avoid grapefruit and its constituents while taking calcium channel blockers. Grapefruit inhibits an isoenzyme called CYP3A4 that helps breakdown calcium channel blockers. Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their calcium channel blockers. Interactions related to grapefruit are often referred to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI. Nitrates relax smooth muscle via dose-dependent dilation of arterial and venous beds to reduce both preload and afterload, and myocardial oxygen demand.
Nitrates also improve coronary collateral circulation, lowers blood pressure, and increases heart rate. Nitrates are used for both the relief and prevention of angina pectoris, treatment of perioperative hypertension, control of congestive heart failure during a myocardial infarction, and you will see these used off label for the treatment of anal fissures.
Typically, patients need a nitrate free interval to minimize tolerance. This nitrate free interval is often provided at night. Nitroglycerin also has special storage requirements due to its relative reactivity with certain plastics. As a result, the sublingual tablets should be stored in glass; typically, this means that patients should keep them in their original container from the manufacturer. Also, the nitroglycerin intravenous solution is infused with special tubing to prevent the drug from leaching into the plastic of most infusion sets.
NYE troe GLIS er in ] NTG - sublingual tablet, extended-release capsule, translingual solution, transdermal patch, intravenous solution, transdermal ointment, rectal ointment. A renin inhibitor prevents the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. The decrease in angiotensin I causes a decrease in angiotensin II, a potent blood pressure elevating peptide. This makes renin inhibitors effective in the treatment of hypertension.
Many antihypertensive medications are provided in combinations in order to combine effects and improve patient compliance by decreasing the number of medications the patient may need to take. As all the medications listed below have already been discussed in this chapter, you may refer to the previous information concerning each active ingredient within the combination medications listed below.
Tekturna HCT generic name: A broad range of chemicals with various mechanisms of action fall into this category. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are used for the following treatments: Medication interactions are a common concern with these drugs as many pain relievers most NSAIDs and aspirin may slow a patient's clotting time. These pain relievers should not be taken in combination with the various anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs without first consulting a physician.
Warfarin also provides a significant food-drug interaction. Warfarin prevents coagulation by binding vitamin K; therefore foods rich in vitamin K such as dark leafy greens, broccoli, and asparagus should be avoided as they will interfere with warfarin.
AS pi rin and dye peer ID a mole ] - extended-release capsule Plavix generic name: WAR far in ] - - tablet, powder for injection. This is significant because most circulating cholesterol comes from internal manufacture rather than the diet. When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, total levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall, particularly LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides.
They also increase "good cholesterol" -- HDL cholesterol. Cholesterol synthesis appears to occur mostly at night, so statins with short half-lives are usually taken at night to maximize their effect. The most common adverse side effects are raised liver enzymes and muscle problems most frequently muscle cramps. Inhibiting this enzyme causes patients to effectively be overdosed by their HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Interactions related to grapefruit are often refereed to as grapefruit juice drug interactions GJDI.
LOE va sta tin ] - tablet, extended-release tablet Pravachol generic name: SIM va sta tin ] - tablet. There are a number of other medications used to reduce cholesterol with various mechanisms of action. SIM va stat in and ez ET i mibe ] - tablet.
An allergy is a hypersensitivity to a substance an allergen that is normally harmless. Allergy sufferers may endure a wide variety of symptoms such as inflammation of the nasal passages and the conjunctiva a membrane covering the white part of the eye , skin conditions such as hives and eczema, and asthma attacks.
Some allergic conditions can be more serious and even involve anaphylaxis! Exposure to allergens that an individual has become sensitive causes their bodies to release histamines. Patients that desire symptomatic relief may use antihistamines and decongestants. First generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine can cross the blood brain barrier. As a result, diphenhydramine may be used to treat insomnia, and hydroxyzine may be used to treat nausea and vomiting.
DES lor A ta deen ] - tablet, disintegrating tablet, syrup Benadryl generic name: DYE fen HYE dra meen ] - tablet, chewable tablet, disintegrating tablet, capsule, oral solution, cream, gel, ointment, lotion, topical aerosol spray, oral strip, injectable solution Allegra generic name: OH loe PAT a deen ] - ophthalmic drops, nasal spray. Patients with either colds or congestion related to their allergies may desire an antihistamine in combination with a decongestant.
Since pseudoephedrine is the most commonly included decongestant, many of the medications need to be kept behind the counter in order to limit their availability. This is a result of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act , an act intended to decrease the number of clandestine methamphetamine labs in the United States. Zyrtec D generic name: Some patients may have respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis.
Patients may receive glucocorticosteroids, bronchodialators, leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even epinephrine to treat or prevent acute episodes. Glucocorticosteroids and epinephrine have already been discussed in this article; therefore, this section will focus on bronchodialators and leukotriene receptor antagonists. A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
The bronchodialators on this list can be further broken down into beta-2 agonists albuterol, levalbuterol, and salmeterol and anticholinergics ipratropium and tiotropium.
Fluticasone, which may be used on it own or in combination with other drugs, is classified as a glucocorticosteroid. IP ra TRO pee um ] - inhalation aerosol, solution for nebulization, nasal spray Xopenex generic name: Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been shown to improve asthma symptoms, reduce asthma exacerbations, and limit markers of inflammation. These medications are also used for allergies. The nerves from the sympathetic system originate from the vertebral column commencing at the first segment of the thoracic region of the spinal column and extending up to the second or third lumbar region.
The main purpose of the SNS, or sympathetic nervous system, is to activate the response of the body during stressful situations. Moreover, this system initiates the fight-or-flight mechanism of the body. This system also can supply nerves to other parts of the body like the lungs, eyes, alimentary canal, heart, kidneys, etc.
This system will cause a rise in the heart rate and in the amount of secretions the patient produces. It will also raise the rennin secretions coming from the kidneys.
The release of blood sugar from the liver will as well be stimulated which is deposited into the bloodstream to make the glucose accessible for consumption. The parasympathetic nervous system is the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. The nerve fibers of this subdivision are delegated to the smooth muscles, glandular tissues, and cardiac muscles.
This system is accountable to stimulate the salivation process, tear production, defecation, digestion, and urination.
The fundamental functions of the PNS do not include the rapid response with a stimulus. But what does calming your nervous system really mean?
Many people would describe it as slowing the heart rate, deepening the breath, and relaxing different muscles—but what actually connects these sensations to the brain? Well, allow us to introduce you to the vagus nerve, the part of the body that seems to explain how our minds control our bodies, how our bodies influence our minds and might give us the tools we need to calm them both.
The vagus nerve runs from the base of the brain through the neck and then branches out in the chest stretching all the way down to the abdomen. The word "vagus" actually means "wandering" in Latin—and that's exactly what the vagus nerve does, it wanders down the body, touching the heart and almost all major organs on its way.
This nerve has long been thought of as a "remarkable internal sensory system" as it works to regulate breathing, heart rate, muscles, digestion, circulation, and even the vocal cords. Are you interested yet? If you haven't heard of the vagus nerve, you're not alone. And it might be because, although scientists know it has many functions, they aren't sure exactly how this nerve actually works. What we do know is that it's a major regulator of the peripheral nervous system, which is also known as the "rest and digest" response because of its ability to slow our pulse and lower our blood pressure.
The vagus nerve is also a central player in the gut-brain axis , which has become a pretty big deal in the wellness world.
In , a German physiologist first discovered that stimulating the vagus nerve caused the heart rate to slow down by triggering the release of a substance he called Vagusstoff vagus substance. It was later discovered that this substance was actually acetylcholine—an important neurotransmitter in our nervous system.
Since then, researchers have discovered a lot more about the vagus nerve and the role it plays in quite a few different diseases and important systems in the body. For example, electrical stimulation of this nerve has been shown to reduce the rate of epileptic seizures and help with depressive symptoms. Vagal tone—or how strong your vagus nerve is—can be connected to inflammation , immune system regulation , metabolism , and emotional regulation , which we can all agree are pretty important.
So what does the vagus nerve mean for mental health? Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation, inflammation , depression, and is even used as a measurement for a person's sensitivity to stress. Meanwhile, a healthy vagal tone is associated with the opposite: Some studies have even shown that increasing vagal tone could be helpful in treating addiction and certain cravings.
Knowing this, it might be time—in honor of Mental Health Month—for all of us to study up on this very important part of the body. Wondering if you can strengthen your vagal tone for better health?