Tube Feedings

con·tin·u·ous

Nasogastric Intubation and Feeding
No Criteria Inclusion Criteria:. The streams feed the creek. If the feeding tube comes out, clean the skin around the stoma and apply a sterile dressing. If you experience diarrhea, sweating and flushing after eating, contact the healthcare team. Certain medications may interact with some formulas to inactivate the nutrients or change the way that the drug is absorbed.

Nasogastric Tube Feeding Using a Feeding Pump

continuous

Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies Intermittent Versus Continuous Feeding in ICU Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.

Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U. Read our disclaimer for details. The purpose of this study is to determine whether intermittent nasogastric enteral feeding, rather than conventional continuous enteral feeding, will preserve muscle mass in the critically ill Primary end-point. In addition, long-term improvements in health-related quality of life and physical activity levels may result in these ICU survivors once they are back in the community.

Indeed, such benefits could translate into reductions in primary healthcare usage and its related costs secondary end-points. Bolus feeds or continuous feeds during a day ICU stay. The continuous feeding regimen consists of the total volume of feed administered over 24 hours.

Using Short Form SF questionnaire via telephone. This will provide primary care costs and allow derivation of health economic parameters, Quality-Adjusted Life Years and Cost Utility Ratios. Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials. Acute skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness. Padhke, Rahul [corrected to Phadke, Rahul]. Puthucheary ZA, Hart N. Skeletal muscle mass and mortality - but what about functional outcome? A nasoduodenal or nasojejunal tube is inserted through the nose and ends in either the duodenum or jejunum, both of which are portions of the small intestine.

This type of tube placement is usually used for short-term feeding. Surgical placement of a feeding tube may be done if there will be a long-term need for feeding that bypasses the upper digestive tract. An esophagostomy creates an opening in the esophagus, a gastrostomy creates an opening into the stomach, and a jejunostomy creates an opening into the jejunum.

The feeding tube is then inserted through the surgically created opening. Tube feedings can be a mixture of regular foods that are blended with liquid to make a consistency that will pass through the tube.

Nutritionally balanced liquid products are often more convenient to use and ensure a balance of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates along with vitamins and minerals. Specialized formulas are also available to meet almost any nutritional need. For example, patients with severe burns, proteinenergy malnutrition, or slow wound healing may require formulas that are higher in protein. Patients with renal failure may require low-protein formulas with lower concentrations of minerals and vitamins.

The reasons that tube feeding is necessary are discussed with the patient, as is the length of time that the feeding tube is expected to be in place. The specific procedure is also explained to the patient. Patients with ostomy feeding tubes may have the tube positioned level with the surrounding skin.

A cap A feeding tube can be inserted by a surgical or nonsurgical procedure in several positions along the gastrointestinal tract to provide nutrition to patients who are unable or unwilling to eat food.

The feeding may be pumped into the tube or allowed to drip into the tube continuously, or at scheduled feeding times. The illustration above features a nasojejunal tube which is inserted through the nose and ends in either the duodenum or jejunum. Illustration by Electronic Illustrators Group. Formula from the tube can back up in the esophagus and be breathed into the trachea and lungs, causing aspiration pneumonia.

The placement of the tube should be checked frequently and the head of the bed elevated during and after feeding to prevent the solution from moving back up the digestive tract. Feeding tubes can also become clogged and should be flushed regularly with water. If the feeding formula is too concentrated or given too fast, the patient may experience nausea, vomiting, cramping, and bloating. It may be helpful to use a smaller feeding tube and to sit upright or raise the head of the bed during the feeding and for at least 60 minutes after.

Medicines may also be given to increase the muscle contractions in the gastrointestinal tract. Nausea and vomiting may occur if you are sick or too full, or the feeding is given too quickly. To prevent vomiting, start the feeding at a slow rate and then increase to the desired rate.

When feeding, it may be helpful to sit up or have the head of the bed raised. The healthcare team may recommend using a different formula, such as a lactose-free formula.

You may experience gas or bloating if the feeding is given too quickly. If this happens, decrease the feeding rate or stop the feeding and then restart at a slower rate after a few hours. Your healthcare team may recommend using a low-fat formula. Being more physically active may also help to reduce gas or bloating. Dehydration can be caused by vomiting, diarrhea and excess sweating.

Signs of dehydration include a dry, sticky tongue, sunken eyes, cracked or dry lips, thirst or a small amount of dark yellow urine. When you are on tube feeds, you may not have the same bowel patterns as when you were eating. To prevent constipation, make sure the recommended amount of water flushes are given and try to be as physically active as possible each day. Your healthcare team may recommend a different formula, more water or medicines to help manage constipation.

You may experience a dry mouth. Rinsing your mouth often may help. Check with the healthcare team about chewing gum or sucking on mints.

Crushing medicines to a fine powder and dissolving them in a small amount of warm water will also help. Contact the healthcare team if the feeding tube becomes blocked. If warm water does not unclog the tube, special enzymes may be needed. If the tube cannot be cleared, it may need to be replaced.

Dumping syndrome occurs when food moves too fast from the stomach into the small intestine. To prevent dumping syndrome, give formula at room temperature and increase the feeding rate gradually. If you experience diarrhea, sweating and flushing after eating, contact the healthcare team.

The feeding rate may need to be reduced. Try to prevent the feeding tube from falling out by always checking the position of the tube before feeding or giving medicines and measure the length of the feeding tube outside of the body to make sure it is the correct length. If the feeding tube falls out, it will need to be replaced. Contact the healthcare team immediately or go to the emergency department since the tube can be replaced without the full procedure needing to be repeated if caught in time.

To prevent fluid from leaking around the tube, make sure to use the correct flow rate and volume of formula. Frequently flush the tube with water to avoid a blocked tube. Make sure the tube is securely taped to prevent pulling on the stoma. If leaking occurs, check to see if the tube is blocked or if the tube has moved out of position.

Contact the healthcare team if the tube if blocked or has moved out of position. The skin around the tube or stoma site may become irritated or infected. Keep the skin clean and dry and cover with a dressing. Clean the skin daily with soap and water. If a skin infection occurs, call the healthcare team. Signs of skin infection may include red, hot and swollen skin, discharge from the stoma, pain around the stoma, fever or a bad smell around the stoma.

If the feeding tube comes out, clean the skin around the stoma and apply a sterile dressing. Parenteral nutrition sometimes called total parenteral nutrition, or TPN provides fluids and essential nutrients directly into the bloodstream through an intravenous IV catheter.

The nutrients do not go through the GI tract. Parenteral nutrition is used if you: Parenteral nutrition is prepared by a pharmacist.

A doctor and dietician usually work closely with the pharmacist to make sure that the parenteral nutrition solution meets your specific nutritional needs. Blood tests will be done to check the levels of potassium, sugar, sodium and other substances in your blood.

Parenteral nutrition is usually started in the hospital as a non-stop infusion over a hour period. You will be weighed every morning at about the same time and blood will be taken daily.

Electrolytes and liver and kidney function are monitored frequently. This helps the healthcare team determine how you are doing and if the parenteral nutrition solution is meeting your nutritional needs. Some people receiving parenteral nutrition can continue to eat by mouth. Because parenteral nutrition solutions are concentrated and thick, they must be given through a central venous catheter. An infusion pump controls the rate at which the solution is given.

At home, parenteral nutrition is given 8—12 hours per day, depending on your situation.

Programming the Pump